Archived Content

Information identified as archived is provided for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes. It is not subject to the Government of Canada Web Standards and has not been altered or updated since it was archived. Please contact us to request a format other than those available.

2011 National Household Survey: Data tables

Tabulation: Profile - Immigration and Ethnocultural Diversity, Aboriginal Peoples, Education and Labour, Mobility and Migration, and Income and Housing for Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, National Household Survey, 2011

Data table

Select data categories for this table


This table details profile - immigration and ethnocultural diversity, aboriginal peoples, education and labour, mobility and migration, and income and housing in St. John's
Global non-response rate (GNR)Footnote 1 = 27.5 %
Profile of Census Metropolitan Areas/Census Agglomerations (960) Sex (3)
Total - Sex Male Female
Total population in private households by citizenshipFootnote 2 193,830 93,615 100,210
Canadian citizens 190,485 91,695 98,790
Canadian citizens aged under 18 36,735 19,155 17,585
Canadian citizens aged 18 and over 153,750 72,545 81,205
Not Canadian citizensFootnote 3 3,345 1,920 1,425
Total population in private households by immigrant status and period of immigrationFootnote 4 193,825 93,615 100,210
Non-immigrantsFootnote 5 186,565 89,650 96,915
ImmigrantsFootnote 6 5,875 3,090 2,790
Before 1971 1,255 635 620
1971 to 1980 900 485 415
1981 to 1990 640 380 265
1991 to 2000 905 435 475
2001 to 2011Footnote 7 2,185 1,160 1,025
2001 to 2005 565 310 260
2006 to 2011Footnote 8 1,615 855 760
Non-permanent residentsFootnote 9 1,385 885 505
Total immigrant population in private households by age at immigrationFootnote 10 5,875 3,085 2,790
Under 5 years 950 400 550
5 to 14 years 1,115 630 485
15 to 24 years 880 490 385
25 to 44 years 2,620 1,415 1,205
45 years and over 310 150 160
Total population in private households by immigrant status and selected places of birthFootnote 11 193,830 93,615 100,215
Non-immigrantsFootnote 12 186,565 89,650 96,915
Born in province of residence 170,360 81,615 88,745
Born outside province of residence 16,200 8,030 8,170
ImmigrantsFootnote 13 5,880 3,085 2,790
Americas 1,140 535 605
United States 915 385 530
Jamaica 0 0 0
Guyana 0 0 0
Haiti 0 0 0
Mexico 0 0 0
Trinidad and Tobago 0 0 0
Colombia 50 20 30
El Salvador 0 0 0
Peru 0 0 0
Chile 0 0 0
Other places of birth in Americas 90 60 30
Europe 2,375 1,275 1,100
United KingdomFootnote 14 1,480 815 670
Italy 20 0 0
Germany 170 90 85
Poland 50 25 0
Portugal 45 20 25
Netherlands 25 0 0
France 55 35 20
Romania 30 0 25
Russian Federation 85 40 40
Greece 0 0 0
Ukraine 0 0 0
Croatia 0 0 0
Hungary 35 0 30
Bosnia and Herzegovina 0 0 0
Serbia 0 0 0
Ireland, Republic of 125 65 60
Other places of birth in Europe 215 125 95
Africa 465 265 205
Morocco 0 0 0
Algeria 10 0 0
Egypt 35 20 0
South Africa, Republic of 35 20 0
Nigeria 80 60 0
Ethiopia 0 0 0
Kenya 0 0 0
Other places of birth in Africa 245 125 120
Asia 1,820 965 855
India 260 125 135
ChinaFootnote 15 355 190 165
Philippines 80 25 50
Hong Kong Special Administrative Region 60 30 0
Viet NamFootnote 16 45 30 0
Pakistan 155 90 70
Sri Lanka 70 35 40
IranFootnote 17 130 55 75
Korea, SouthFootnote 18 40 0 0
Lebanon 0 0 0
Taiwan 90 35 60
Iraq 25 0 0
Bangladesh 115 80 35
Afghanistan 0 0 0
Japan 35 25 0
Turkey 0 0 0
Other places of birth in Asia 330 195 140
Oceania and otherFootnote 19 75 50 25
Fiji 0 0 0
Other places of birthFootnote 20 75 50 25
Non-permanent residentsFootnote 21 1,385 880 505
Total recent immigrant population in private households by selected places of birthFootnote 22 1,615 850 760
Americas 290 115 175
United States 180 55 125
Mexico 0 0 0
Cuba 0 0 0
Haiti 0 0 0
Jamaica 0 0 0
Brazil 0 0 0
Colombia 35 10 25
Guyana 0 0 0
Peru 0 0 0
VenezuelaFootnote 23 0 0 0
Other places of birth in Americas 25 0 25
Europe 195 120 70
France 0 0 0
Germany 0 0 0
Poland 0 0 0
Romania 0 0 0
MoldovaFootnote 24 0 0 0
Russian Federation 0 0 0
Ukraine 0 0 0
United KingdomFootnote 25 90 70 15
Other places of birth in Europe 70 35 40
Africa 230 130 100
Nigeria 40 0 0
Ethiopia 0 0 0
Mauritius 0 0 0
Somalia 0 0 0
Algeria 15 0 0
Egypt 25 0 0
Morocco 0 0 0
Tunisia 0 0 0
Cameroon 0 0 0
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the 40 15 20
South Africa, Republic of 15 0 0
Other places of birth in Africa 65 30 40
Asia 890 475 415
Philippines 65 25 35
ChinaFootnote 26 130 50 75
India 70 35 30
Pakistan 150 85 65
IranFootnote 27 30 0 0
South KoreaFootnote 28 0 0 0
Sri Lanka 0 0 0
Iraq 0 0 0
Bangladesh 75 55 20
Lebanon 0 0 0
Viet NamFootnote 29 0 0 0
Taiwan 60 0 0
Afghanistan 0 0 0
Japan 0 0 0
Turkey 0 0 0
Israel 0 0 0
Nepal 95 60 0
Hong Kong Special Administrative Region 0 0 0
United Arab Emirates 0 0 0
Saudi Arabia 0 0 0
SyriaFootnote 30 0 0 0
Other places of birth in Asia 175 90 80
Oceania and otherFootnote 31 0 0 0
Total population in private households by generation statusFootnote 32 193,830 93,615 100,210
First generationFootnote 33 7,550 4,100 3,450
Second generationFootnote 34 6,880 3,605 3,275
Third generation or moreFootnote 35 179,405 85,910 93,490
Total population in private households by visible minority 193,830 93,615 100,215
Total visible minority populationFootnote 36 4,890 2,750 2,140
South AsianFootnote 37 1,315 755 565
Chinese 1,200 635 565
Black 1,110 665 445
Filipino 160 60 100
Latin American 150 95 60
Arab 210 125 85
Southeast AsianFootnote 38 240 170 75
West AsianFootnote 39 140 85 60
Korean 65 25 35
Japanese 55 40 15
Visible minority, n.i.e.Footnote 40 60 0 45
Multiple visible minoritiesFootnote 41 180 85 95
Not a visible minorityFootnote 42 188,940 90,865 98,075
Total population in private households by ethnic originsFootnote 43 193,825 93,615 100,210
North American Aboriginal origins 7,470 3,360 4,105
First Nations (North American Indian) 5,155 2,320 2,840
Inuit 1,445 730 720
Métis 1,205 470 735
Other North American origins 89,020 42,915 46,105
Acadian 220 110 110
American 1,005 520 485
Canadian 86,120 41,425 44,700
New Brunswicker 0 0 0
Newfoundlander 2,625 1,360 1,265
Nova Scotian 0 0 0
Ontarian 0 0 0
Québécois 30 25 0
Other North American origins, n.i.e.Footnote 44 60 35 0
European origins 129,815 62,390 67,425
British Isles origins 124,795 59,780 65,015
Channel Islander 105 35 75
Cornish 0 0 0
English 87,480 41,845 45,640
Irish 62,130 29,165 32,965
Manx 0 0 0
Scottish 15,840 7,670 8,170
Welsh 2,450 1,160 1,290
British Isles origins, n.i.e.Footnote 45 2,440 1,180 1,260
French origins 9,155 4,155 5,000
Alsatian 0 0 0
Breton 0 0 0
French 9,155 4,160 4,995
Western European origins (except French origins) 5,755 2,770 2,990
Austrian 185 130 55
Belgian 55 0 35
Dutch 1,015 380 640
Flemish 0 0 0
Frisian 0 0 0
German 4,695 2,335 2,365
Luxembourger 0 0 0
Swiss 50 35 20
Western European origins, n.i.e.Footnote 46 0 0 0
Northern European origins (except British Isles origins) 1,835 995 835
Danish 210 105 105
Finnish 150 80 75
Icelandic 135 65 75
Norwegian 780 460 320
Swedish 550 290 255
Northern European origins, n.i.e.Footnote 47 55 25 35
Eastern European origins 2,475 1,260 1,210
Bulgarian 30 25 0
Byelorussian 0 0 0
Czech 35 20 20
Czechoslovakian, n.o.s. 15 0 0
Estonian 0 0 0
Hungarian 165 80 85
Latvian 15 15 0
Lithuanian 40 30 0
Moldovan 0 0 0
Polish 755 385 370
Romanian 115 45 70
Russian 725 435 290
Slovak 175 0 160
Ukrainian 645 355 285
Eastern European origins, n.i.e.Footnote 48 0 0 0
Southern European origins 2,290 1,180 1,110
Albanian 40 25 0
Bosnian 0 0 0
Croatian 25 15 0
Cypriot 15 0 0
Greek 300 175 120
Italian 1,085 565 520
Kosovar 0 0 0
Macedonian 0 0 0
Maltese 0 0 0
Montenegrin 0 0 0
Portuguese 460 240 215
Serbian 10 0 0
Sicilian 0 0 0
Slovenian 0 0 0
Spanish 370 165 205
Yugoslavian, n.o.s. 25 0 0
Southern European origins, n.i.e.Footnote 49 0 0 0
Other European origins 275 150 130
Basque 50 40 0
Jewish 195 85 115
Roma (Gypsy) 0 0 0
Slavic, n.o.s. 0 0 0
Other European origins, n.i.e.Footnote 50 25 20 0
Caribbean origins 560 315 250
Antiguan 0 0 0
Bahamian 0 0 0
Barbadian 235 105 125
Bermudan 0 0 0
Carib 0 0 0
Cuban 0 0 0
Dominican 0 0 0
Grenadian 0 0 0
Haitian 0 0 0
Jamaican 130 70 60
Kittitian/Nevisian 0 0 0
Martinican 0 0 0
Montserratan 0 0 0
Puerto Rican 0 0 0
St. Lucian 0 0 0
Trinidadian/Tobagonian 0 0 0
Vincentian/Grenadinian 0 0 0
West Indian, n.o.s. 75 50 25
Caribbean origins, n.i.e.Footnote 51 65 65 0
Latin, Central and South American origins 405 190 215
Aboriginal from Central/South America (except Maya) 0 0 0
Argentinian 15 0 0
Belizean 0 0 0
Bolivian 0 0 0
Brazilian 0 0 0
Chilean 25 0 0
Colombian 90 35 55
Costa Rican 0 0 0
Ecuadorian 0 0 0
Guatemalan 0 0 0
Guyanese 0 0 0
Hispanic 0 0 0
Honduran 0 0 0
Maya 0 0 0
Mexican 50 35 0
Nicaraguan 0 0 0
Panamanian 0 0 0
Paraguayan 0 0 0
Peruvian 0 0 0
Salvadorean 30 0 0
Uruguayan 0 0 0
Venezuelan 0 0 0
Latin, Central and South American origins, n.i.e.Footnote 52 0 0 0
African origins 950 550 400
Central and West African origins 230 110 115
Akan 0 0 0
Angolan 0 0 0
Ashanti 0 0 0
Beninese 0 0 0
Burkinabe 0 0 0
Cameroonian 0 0 0
Chadian 0 0 0
Congolese 35 20 15
Gabonese 0 0 0
Gambian 0 0 0
Ghanaian 0 0 0
Guinean 0 0 0
Ibo 0 0 0
Ivorian 0 0 0
Liberian 0 0 0
Malian 0 0 0
Nigerian 145 65 80
Peulh 0 0 0
Senegalese 0 0 0
Sierra Leonean 0 0 0
Togolese 0 0 0
Yoruba 0 0 0
Central and West African origins, n.i.e.Footnote 53 0 0 0
North African origins 180 75 95
Algerian 15 10 0
Berber 0 0 0
Coptic 0 0 0
Dinka 0 0 0
Egyptian 60 15 40
Libyan 10 0 0
Maure 0 0 0
Moroccan 0 0 0
Sudanese 75 40 35
Tunisian 0 0 0
North African origins, n.i.e.Footnote 54 0 0 0
Southern and East African origins 325 190 135
Afrikaner 0 0 0
Amhara 0 0 0
Bantu, n.o.s. 0 0 0
Burundian 0 0 0
Eritrean 25 0 15
Ethiopian 0 0 0
Harari 0 0 0
Kenyan 20 0 0
Malagasy 30 0 0
Mauritian 0 0 0
Oromo 0 0 0
Rwandan 0 0 0
Seychellois 0 0 0
Somali 0 0 0
South African 90 65 20
Tanzanian 0 0 0
Tigrian 0 0 0
Ugandan 55 25 25
Zambian 0 0 0
Zimbabwean 0 0 0
Zulu 0 0 0
Southern and East African origins, n.i.e.Footnote 55 65 0 0
Other African origins 250 190 65
Black, n.o.s.Footnote 56 30 0 15
Other African origins, n.i.e.Footnote 57 230 175 55
Asian origins 4,245 2,290 1,955
West Central Asian and Middle Eastern origins 815 405 415
Afghan 0 0 0
Arab, n.o.s. 105 55 50
Armenian 0 0 0
Assyrian 0 0 0
Azerbaijani 0 0 0
Georgian 0 0 0
Iranian 170 95 75
Iraqi 15 0 15
Israeli 0 0 0
Jordanian 30 0 0
Kazakh 0 0 0
Kurd 0 0 0
Kuwaiti 0 0 0
Lebanese 365 145 215
Palestinian 30 0 20
Pashtun 0 0 0
Saudi Arabian 30 30 0
Syrian 40 0 35
Tajik 0 0 0
Tatar 0 0 0
Turk 25 20 0
Uighur 0 0 0
Uzbek 0 0 0
Yemeni 0 0 0
West Central Asian and Middle Eastern origins, n.i.e.Footnote 58 40 30 0
South Asian origins 1,375 760 620
Bangladeshi 70 25 45
Bengali 0 0 0
East IndianFootnote 59 925 490 430
Goan 0 0 0
Gujarati 0 0 0
Kashmiri 0 0 0
Nepali 110 60 0
Pakistani 70 0 40
Punjabi 60 0 0
Sinhalese 0 0 0
Sri Lankan 115 70 45
Tamil 0 0 0
South Asian origins, n.i.e.Footnote 60 205 140 60
East and Southeast Asian origins 1,890 985 905
Burmese 0 0 0
Cambodian (Khmer) 0 0 0
Chinese 1,360 720 635
Filipino 185 70 115
Hmong 0 0 0
Indonesian 0 0 0
Japanese 70 50 0
Korean 95 65 30
Laotian 0 0 0
Malaysian 20 0 20
Mongolian 0 0 0
Singaporean 0 0 0
Taiwanese 100 40 60
Thai 25 0 0
Tibetan 0 0 0
Vietnamese 75 45 30
East and Southeast Asian origins, n.i.e.Footnote 61 0 0 0
Other Asian origins 185 155 30
Other Asian origins, n.i.e.Footnote 62 185 155 35
Oceania origins 85 40 50
Australian 65 30 35
New Zealander 0 0 0
Pacific Islands origins 0 0 0
Fijian 0 0 0
Hawaiian 0 0 0
Maori 0 0 0
Polynesian, n.o.s. 0 0 0
Samoan 0 0 0
Pacific Islands origins, n.i.e.Footnote 63 0 0 0
Total population in private households by religionFootnote 64 193,830 93,615 100,215
Buddhist 265 155 105
Christian 174,290 82,765 91,530
Anglican 40,455 18,915 21,535
Baptist 660 330 330
Catholic 88,305 41,640 46,665
Christian Orthodox 160 105 60
Lutheran 290 175 115
Pentecostal 5,230 2,450 2,785
Presbyterian 1,255 595 660
United Church 26,255 12,770 13,485
Other Christian 11,680 5,785 5,895
Hindu 540 280 255
Jewish 125 60 65
Muslim 1,020 600 415
Sikh 85 60 25
Traditional (Aboriginal) Spirituality 0 0 0
Other religions 385 210 180
No religious affiliation 17,120 9,480 7,640
Total population in private households by Aboriginal identity 193,830 93,615 100,215
Aboriginal identityFootnote 65 4,515 2,250 2,265
First Nations (North American Indian) single identityFootnote 66 1,915 870 1,045
Métis single identity 1,310 570 740
Inuk (Inuit) single identity 685 420 260
Multiple Aboriginal identitiesFootnote 67 0 0 0
Aboriginal identities not included elsewhereFootnote 68 600 395 205
Non-Aboriginal identity 189,310 91,365 97,945
Total population in private households by Registered or Treaty Indian statusFootnote 69 193,830 93,620 100,210
Registered or Treaty IndianFootnote 70 1,470 740 735
Not a Registered or Treaty Indian 192,355 92,875 99,480
Total population in private households by Aboriginal ancestryFootnote 71 193,830 93,615 100,210
Aboriginal ancestryFootnote 72 7,470 3,365 4,110
First Nations (North American Indian) Aboriginal ancestryFootnote 73 5,155 2,325 2,835
Métis ancestry 1,205 470 735
Inuit ancestry 1,445 730 715
Non-Aboriginal ancestry onlyFootnote 74 186,360 90,255 96,105
Total population in private households by non-official languages spokenFootnote 75 6,130 3,295 2,830
Aboriginal languages 0 0 0
Algonquin 0 0 0
Atikamekw 0 0 0
Blackfoot 0 0 0
Cree languagesFootnote 76 0 0 0
Mi'kmaq 0 0 0
Innu/Montagnais 0 0 0
Ojibway 0 0 0
Oji-Cree 0 0 0
Carrier 0 0 0
Dene 0 0 0
Tlicho (Dogrib) 0 0 0
Slavey, n.o.s. 0 0 0
Stoney 0 0 0
Inuktitut 0 0 0
Other Aboriginal languagesFootnote 77 0 0 0
Non-Aboriginal languages 6,070 3,235 2,835
Italian 135 55 75
Portuguese 105 65 45
Romanian 15 0 0
Spanish 1,120 575 550
Dutch 40 15 20
Flemish 0 0 0
German 670 345 325
Yiddish 0 0 0
Danish 50 35 0
Norwegian 50 30 0
Swedish 20 10 0
Afrikaans 40 0 30
Gaelic languages 90 65 0
Bosnian 15 0 0
Bulgarian 0 0 0
Croatian 20 15 0
Czech 0 0 0
Macedonian 0 0 0
Polish 75 30 40
Russian 325 220 110
Serbian 0 0 0
Serbo-Croatian 0 0 0
Slovak 0 0 0
Slovenian 0 0 0
Ukrainian 15 0 0
Latvian 0 0 0
Lithuanian 0 0 0
Greek 45 30 20
Armenian 0 0 0
Albanian 40 20 0
Estonian 0 0 0
Finnish 0 0 0
Hungarian 35 0 25
Turkish 25 0 0
Berber languages (Kabyle) 0 0 0
Oromo 0 0 0
Somali 0 0 0
Amharic 45 0 0
Arabic 290 170 120
Hebrew 0 0 0
Maltese 0 0 0
Tigrigna 45 0 35
Semitic languages, n.i.e. 0 0 0
Bengali 315 235 80
Gujarati 30 15 15
Hindi 275 165 110
Konkani 0 0 0
Marathi 25 0 0
Panjabi (Punjabi) 90 50 40
Sindhi 0 0 0
Sinhala (Sinhalese) 25 0 0
Urdu 235 110 125
Nepali 205 130 70
Kurdish 0 0 0
Pashto 0 0 0
Persian (Farsi) 150 75 75
Indo-Iranian languages, n.i.e. 0 0 0
Kannada 35 0 0
Malayalam 35 0 0
Tamil 105 55 55
Telugu 30 15 10
Japanese 75 25 50
Korean 85 50 35
Cantonese 205 135 75
Fukien 0 0 0
Hakka 0 0 0
Mandarin 230 100 125
Taiwanese 45 0 30
Chinese, n.o.s. 455 225 230
Lao 0 0 0
Thai 35 0 0
Khmer (Cambodian) 0 0 0
Vietnamese 50 40 0
Bisayan languages 0 0 0
Ilocano 0 0 0
Malay 100 35 60
Tagalog (Pilipino,Filipino) 95 25 65
Akan (Twi) 0 0 0
Lingala 15 10 0
Rundi (Kirundi) 0 0 0
Rwanda (Kinyarwanda) 20 0 15
Swahili 90 35 55
Bantu languages, n.i.e. 0 0 0
Niger-Congo languages, n.i.e. 45 0 30
African languages, n.i.e. 95 60 40
Creoles 0 0 0
Other non-Aboriginal languagesFootnote 78 385 165 225
Total - Mobility status 1 year agoFootnote 79 191,735 92,620 99,115
Non-movers 168,860 81,425 87,435
Movers 22,870 11,190 11,680
Non-migrants 12,940 6,335 6,610
Migrants 9,930 4,860 5,070
Internal migrants 9,080 4,360 4,720
Intraprovincial migrants 6,600 3,140 3,460
Interprovincial migrants 2,480 1,225 1,260
External migrants 850 500 350
Total - Mobility status 5 years agoFootnote 80 183,260 88,080 95,180
Non-movers 114,595 55,115 59,480
Movers 68,665 32,965 35,700
Non-migrants 35,130 16,540 18,590
Migrants 33,535 16,420 17,115
Internal migrants 30,695 14,760 15,940
Intraprovincial migrants 19,060 9,040 10,015
Interprovincial migrants 11,635 5,715 5,920
External migrants 2,840 1,665 1,175
Total population aged 15 years and over by highest certificate, diploma or degreeFootnote 81 163,000 77,525 85,475
No certificate, diploma or degree 27,145 13,325 13,825
High school diploma or equivalentFootnote 82 39,360 18,855 20,505
Postsecondary certificate, diploma or degreeFootnote 83 96,495 45,345 51,150
Apprenticeship or trades certificate or diplomaFootnote 84 18,065 11,190 6,875
College, CEGEP or other non-university certificate or diploma 35,975 15,135 20,840
University certificate or diploma below bachelor levelFootnote 85 6,545 2,975 3,565
University certificate, diploma or degree at bachelor level or above 35,905 16,040 19,865
Bachelor's degree 23,070 9,815 13,255
University certificate, diploma or degree above bachelor levelFootnote 86 12,835 6,225 6,610
Total population aged 25 to 64 years by highest certificate, diploma or degreeFootnote 87 113,820 53,990 59,835
No certificate, diploma or degree 11,445 5,965 5,475
High school diploma or equivalentFootnote 88 22,460 10,925 11,540
Postsecondary certificate, diploma or degreeFootnote 89 79,915 37,090 42,820
Apprenticeship or trades certificate or diplomaFootnote 90 14,445 8,850 5,595
College, CEGEP or other non-university certificate or diploma 30,100 12,560 17,540
University certificate or diploma below bachelor levelFootnote 91 4,965 2,235 2,735
University certificate, diploma or degree at bachelor level or above 30,400 13,450 16,950
Bachelor's degree 19,560 8,500 11,060
University certificate, diploma or degree above bachelor levelFootnote 92 10,840 4,950 5,890
Total population aged 15 years and over by major field of study - Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP) 2011Footnote 93 162,995 77,525 85,475
No postsecondary certificate, diploma or degreeFootnote 94 66,505 32,180 34,325
Education 8,540 2,545 6,000
Visual and performing arts, and communications technologies 2,255 1,025 1,225
Humanities 4,145 1,615 2,535
Social and behavioural sciences and law 6,930 2,430 4,500
Business, management and public administration 22,860 6,460 16,405
Physical and life sciences and technologies 3,585 1,940 1,645
Mathematics, computer and information sciences 5,205 2,705 2,505
Architecture, engineering, and related technologies 20,600 19,030 1,570
Agriculture, natural resources and conservation 1,150 655 495
Health and related fieldsFootnote 95 14,630 2,845 11,780
Personal, protective and transportation services 6,590 4,095 2,495
Other fields of studyFootnote 96 0 0 0
Total population aged 15 years and over by location of study compared with province or territory of residenceFootnote 97 162,995 77,520 85,470
No postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree 66,505 32,180 34,325
With postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree 96,490 45,345 51,145
Location of study inside Canada 92,835 43,190 49,640
Same as province or territory of residence 80,075 36,995 43,080
Another province or territory 12,760 6,200 6,560
Location of study outside Canada 3,655 2,150 1,510
Total population aged 15 years and over by language used most often at workFootnote 98 118,440 59,865 58,580
Single responses 118,145 59,695 58,450
English 117,465 59,365 58,105
French 560 235 320
Non-official languages 120 90 20
Chinese, n.o.s. 0 0 0
Cantonese 0 0 0
Panjabi (Punjabi) 0 0 0
Mandarin 0 0 0
Spanish 0 0 0
Korean 0 0 0
German 0 0 0
Cree languagesFootnote 99 0 0 0
Portuguese 0 0 0
Inuktitut 0 0 0
Other languages 80 70 0
Multiple responses 300 170 130
English and French 185 60 120
English and non-official language 115 110 0
French and non-official language 0 0 0
English, French and non-official language 0 0 0
Total population aged 15 years and over by language used most often at workFootnote 100 118,440 59,865 58,580
English 117,465 59,365 58,105
French 555 235 325
Non-official language 115 95 25
Aboriginal 0 0 0
Non-Aboriginal 115 95 20
English and French 185 65 120
English and non-official language 115 105 0
French and non-official language 0 0 0
English, French and non-official language 0 0 0
Total population aged 15 years and over by labour force statusFootnote 101 162,995 77,525 85,475
In the labour force 109,330 55,335 53,990
Employed 101,005 50,800 50,205
Unemployed 8,325 4,540 3,785
Not in the labour force 53,670 22,185 31,485
Participation rate 67.1 71.4 63.2
Employment rate 62.0 65.5 58.7
Unemployment rate 7.6 8.2 7.0
Total labour force aged 15 years and over by class of workerFootnote 102 109,330 55,340 53,990
Class of worker - not applicableFootnote 103 1,740 960 785
All classes of workerFootnote 104 107,585 54,380 53,205
Employee 100,865 50,130 50,740
Self-employedFootnote 105 6,715 4,250 2,465
Total labour force population aged 15 years and over by occupation - National Occupational Classification (NOC) 2011Footnote 106 109,325 55,340 53,990
Occupation - not applicableFootnote 107 1,745 955 785
All occupationsFootnote 108 107,585 54,380 53,205
0 Management occupations 10,440 5,820 4,615
1 Business, finance and administration occupations 18,760 4,790 13,970
2 Natural and applied sciences and related occupations 9,845 7,990 1,855
3 Health occupations 8,645 1,685 6,955
4 Occupations in education, law and social, community and government services 14,370 5,135 9,235
5 Occupations in art, culture, recreation and sport 2,565 1,420 1,145
6 Sales and service occupations 25,285 10,845 14,445
7 Trades, transport and equipment operators and related occupations 13,670 13,275 385
8 Natural resources, agriculture and related production occupations 1,550 1,440 115
9 Occupations in manufacturing and utilities 2,460 1,980 480
Total labour force population aged 15 years and over by industry - North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) 2007Footnote 109 109,330 55,335 53,985
Industry - not applicableFootnote 110 1,745 960 785
All industriesFootnote 111 107,585 54,380 53,205
11 Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting 830 610 220
21 Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction 2,865 2,425 445
22 Utilities 1,115 845 275
23 Construction 7,110 6,465 645
31-33 Manufacturing 4,375 3,475 905
41 Wholesale trade 3,535 2,640 895
44-45 Retail trade 13,905 6,360 7,545
48-49 Transportation and warehousing 4,285 3,445 845
51 Information and cultural industries 2,915 1,465 1,450
52 Finance and insurance 3,085 1,060 2,030
53 Real estate and rental and leasing 1,610 870 740
54 Professional, scientific and technical services 6,740 4,130 2,610
55 Management of companies and enterprises 105 60 45
56 Administrative and support, waste management and remediation services 4,595 2,670 1,930
61 Educational services 8,995 3,490 5,510
62 Health care and social assistance 15,300 3,030 12,275
71 Arts, entertainment and recreation 1,490 785 705
72 Accommodation and food services 6,870 2,595 4,280
81 Other services (except public administration) 4,985 1,920 3,060
91 Public administration 12,855 6,045 6,810
Total labour force aged 15 years and over by work activity in 2010Footnote 112 109,325 55,340 53,990
Did not work in 2010Footnote 113 4,075 2,030 2,045
Worked in 2010 105,255 53,310 51,945
1 to 13 weeks 4,960 2,305 2,655
14 to 26 weeks 9,990 5,070 4,925
27 to 39 weeks 6,580 3,455 3,130
40 to 48 weeks 11,050 5,590 5,455
49 to 52 weeks 72,675 36,890 35,785
Average weeks worked in 2010 44.8 44.9 44.7
Total labour force population aged 15 years and over by full-time or part-time weeks worked in 2010Footnote 114 109,330 55,335 53,990
Did not work in 2010Footnote 115 4,075 2,030 2,045
Worked in 2010 105,250 53,310 51,945
Worked full-time in 2010 88,195 47,010 41,185
Worked part-time in 2010 17,055 6,305 10,755
Total employed population aged 15 years and over by place of work statusFootnote 116 101,005 50,795 50,205
Worked at home 3,605 1,640 1,965
Worked outside Canada 625 600 30
No fixed workplace address 9,970 7,630 2,340
Worked at usual place 86,800 40,930 45,875
Total employed population aged 15 years and over with a usual place of work or no fixed workplace address by mode of transportationFootnote 117 96,770 48,560 48,210
Car, truck or van - as a driver 77,170 39,960 37,210
Car, truck or van - as a passenger 9,060 3,245 5,820
Public transit 2,885 1,310 1,575
Walked 5,255 2,280 2,980
Bicycle 225 185 35
Other methods 2,175 1,585 590
Total employed population aged 15 years and over with a usual place of work or no fixed workplace address by median commuting durationFootnote 118 96,770 48,560 48,210
Median commuting duration 15.5 15.6 15.5
Total employed population aged 15 years and over by time leaving for workFootnote 119 96,775 48,565 48,210
Between 5 and 6:59 a.m. 12,200 8,035 4,165
Between 7 and 9:00 a.m. 67,265 32,665 34,600
Anytime after 9:00 a.m. 17,315 7,865 9,450
Total number of occupied private dwellings by condition of dwellingFootnote 120 79,025 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Only regular maintenance or minor repairs needed 74,310 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Major repairs needed 4,715 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Total number of occupied private dwellings by period of constructionFootnote 121 79,025 not applicable ... not applicable ...
1960 or before 14,110 not applicable ... not applicable ...
1961 to 1980 23,945 not applicable ... not applicable ...
1981 to 1990 13,765 not applicable ... not applicable ...
1991 to 2000 10,880 not applicable ... not applicable ...
2001 to 2005 7,450 not applicable ... not applicable ...
2006 to 2011Footnote 122 8,880 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Total number of occupied private dwellings by number of roomsFootnote 123 79,025 not applicable ... not applicable ...
1 to 4 rooms 12,780 not applicable ... not applicable ...
5 rooms 10,605 not applicable ... not applicable ...
6 rooms 11,760 not applicable ... not applicable ...
7 rooms 11,550 not applicable ... not applicable ...
8 or more rooms 32,325 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average number of rooms per dwelling 7.1 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Total number of occupied private dwellings by number of bedroomsFootnote 124 79,025 not applicable ... not applicable ...
0 to 1 bedroom 6,825 not applicable ... not applicable ...
2 bedrooms 16,065 not applicable ... not applicable ...
3 bedrooms 34,470 not applicable ... not applicable ...
4 or more bedrooms 21,655 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Total number of private households by tenureFootnote 125 79,020 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Owner 55,545 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Renter 23,480 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Band housing 0 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Total number of private households by condominium statusFootnote 126 79,020 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Part of a condominium development 2,670 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Not part of a condominium development 76,355 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Total number of private households by number of household maintainersFootnote 127 79,020 not applicable ... not applicable ...
1 household maintainer 44,065 not applicable ... not applicable ...
2 household maintainers 33,145 not applicable ... not applicable ...
3 or more household maintainers 1,815 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Total number of private households by age group of primary household maintainersFootnote 128 79,020 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Under 25 years 3,760 not applicable ... not applicable ...
25 to 34 years 12,605 not applicable ... not applicable ...
35 to 44 years 15,375 not applicable ... not applicable ...
45 to 54 years 17,745 not applicable ... not applicable ...
55 to 64 years 15,010 not applicable ... not applicable ...
65 to 74 years 8,595 not applicable ... not applicable ...
75 years and over 5,925 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Total number of private households by number of persons per roomFootnote 129 79,020 not applicable ... not applicable ...
One person or fewer per room 78,600 not applicable ... not applicable ...
More than one person per room 420 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Total number of private households by housing suitabilityFootnote 130 79,020 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Suitable 76,340 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Not suitable 2,685 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Total number of owner and tenant households with household total income greater than zero, in non-farm, non-reserve private dwellings by shelter-cost-to-income ratioFootnote 131 78,940 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Spending less than 30% of household total income on shelter costs 61,890 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Spending 30% or more of household total income on shelter costs 17,045 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Spending 30% to less than 100% of household total income on shelter costs 14,080 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Number of owner households in non-farm, non-reserve private dwellings 55,490 not applicable ... not applicable ...
% of owner households with a mortgageFootnote 132 63.7 not applicable ... not applicable ...
% of owner households spending 30% or more of household total income on shelter costsFootnote 133 13.9 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Median monthly shelter costs for owned dwellings ($)Footnote 134 1,061 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average monthly shelter costs for owned dwellings ($)Footnote 135 1,107 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Median value of dwellings ($)Footnote 136 265,940 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average value of dwellings ($)Footnote 137 285,415 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Number of tenant households in non-farm, non-reserve private dwellings 23,480 not applicable ... not applicable ...
% of tenant households in subsidized housingFootnote 138 19.9 not applicable ... not applicable ...
% of tenant households spending 30% or more of household total income on shelter costsFootnote 139 39.9 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Median monthly shelter costs for rented dwellings ($)Footnote 140 748 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average monthly shelter costs for rented dwellings ($)Footnote 141 757 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Total income in 2010 of population aged 15 years and overFootnote 142 163,000 77,520 85,470
Without income 6,565 2,895 3,670
With income 156,430 74,630 81,805
Under $5,000Footnote 143 12,040 5,395 6,645
$5,000 to $9,999 11,995 4,700 7,300
$10,000 to $14,999 13,275 4,935 8,345
$15,000 to $19,999 14,105 4,880 9,225
$20,000 to $29,999 22,655 9,630 13,025
$30,000 to $39,999 21,095 9,455 11,645
$40,000 to $49,999 15,770 7,950 7,825
$50,000 to $59,999 11,850 6,550 5,305
$60,000 to $79,999 16,075 8,885 7,190
$80,000 to $99,999 8,320 4,960 3,360
$100,000 and over 9,245 7,295 1,945
$100,000 to $124,999 4,150 3,070 1,080
$125,000 and over 5,095 4,230 870
Median income $Footnote 144 31,961 38,031 26,943
Average income $Footnote 145 41,515 49,770 33,985
After-tax income in 2010 of population 15 years and overFootnote 146 162,995 77,525 85,475
Without after-tax income 6,630 2,900 3,725
With after-tax income 156,370 74,620 81,750
Under $5,000Footnote 147 12,300 5,455 6,845
$5,000 to $9,999 12,320 4,695 7,630
$10,000 to $14,999 13,610 5,170 8,440
$15,000 to $19,999 15,890 5,715 10,175
$20,000 to $29,999 28,170 12,185 15,985
$30,000 to $39,999 23,890 11,325 12,565
$40,000 to $49,999 17,225 9,340 7,885
$50,000 to $59,999 11,860 6,345 5,515
$60,000 to $79,999 12,725 7,740 4,980
$80,000 to $99,999 4,060 3,120 945
$100,000 and over 4,320 3,540 780
Median after-tax income $Footnote 148 28,655 33,395 24,662
Average after-tax income $Footnote 149 34,365 40,288 28,960
Composition of total income in 2010 of population 15 years and over %Footnote 150 100.0 100.0 100.0
Market income %Footnote 151 88.2 91.3 84.1
Employment income %Footnote 152 78.2 81.0 74.5
Wages and salaries %Footnote 153 74.8 76.9 71.9
Self-employment income %Footnote 154 3.4 4.1 2.6
Investment income %Footnote 155 1.8 1.8 1.9
Retirement pensions, superannuation and annuities %Footnote 156 6.9 7.5 6.2
Other money income %Footnote 157 1.2 1.0 1.4
Government transfer payments %Footnote 158 11.8 8.7 15.9
Canada/Quebec Pension Plan benefits %Footnote 159 3.3 2.9 3.8
Old Age Security pensions and Guaranteed Income Supplement %Footnote 160 2.5 1.8 3.5
Employment Insurance benefits %Footnote 161 2.7 2.4 3.1
Child benefits %Footnote 162 1.1 0.1 2.5
Other income from government sources %Footnote 163 2.2 1.6 2.9
Income taxes paid as a % of total incomeFootnote 164 17.3 19.1 14.8
After-tax income as a % of total incomeFootnote 165 82.7 80.9 85.2
Net capital gains or losses as a % of total incomeFootnote 166 1.0 1.1 0.7
Population aged 15 years and over who worked full year, full time and with employment income in 2010Footnote 167 66,395 34,825 31,575
Median employment income in 2010 $ 48,577 53,579 43,540
Average employment income in 2010 $ 58,319 66,712 49,063
Family income in 2010 of economic familiesFootnote 168 56,785 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Median family income $ 82,809 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average family income $ 97,041 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Median after-tax family income $ 71,245 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average after-tax family income $ 79,929 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average family size 2.9 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Couple-only economic familiesFootnote 169 20,175 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Median family income $ 72,895 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average family income $ 86,291 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Median after-tax family income $ 62,594 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average after-tax family income $ 70,845 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average family size 2.0 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Couple-with-children economic familiesFootnote 170 25,375 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Median family income $ 111,314 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average family income $ 124,010 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Median after-tax family income $ 92,994 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average after-tax family income $ 100,849 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average family size 3.8 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Lone-parent economic familiesFootnote 171 9,005 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Median family income $ 40,852 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average family income $ 49,111 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Median after-tax family income $ 38,862 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average after-tax family income $ 43,666 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average family size 2.5 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Income in 2010 of population aged 15 years and over not in economic familiesFootnote 172 28,525 12,490 16,040
Median total income $Footnote 173 26,381 31,238 24,274
Average total income $Footnote 174 34,488 38,482 31,378
Median after-tax income $Footnote 175 24,340 27,753 22,368
Average after-tax income $Footnote 176 29,266 32,080 27,074
Total population by decile of adjusted after-tax family incomeFootnote 177 193,825 93,620 100,215
In bottom half of the Canadian distribution 86,655 39,460 47,195
In bottom decile 18,935 8,460 10,470
In second decile 16,440 6,640 9,795
In third decile 14,905 6,850 8,055
In fourth decile 17,410 8,110 9,300
In fifth decile 18,970 9,395 9,580
In top half of the Canadian distribution 107,170 54,155 53,015
In sixth decile 19,125 9,500 9,620
In seventh decile 21,680 10,770 10,910
In eighth decile 22,470 11,150 11,320
In ninth decile 22,305 11,605 10,700
In top decile 21,595 11,130 10,460
Household total income in 2010 of private householdsFootnote 178 79,020 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Under $5,000 1,765 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$5,000 to $9,999 1,730 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$10,000 to $14,999 2,280 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$15,000 to $19,999 4,210 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$20,000 to $29,999 6,405 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$30,000 to $39,999 6,770 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$40,000 to $49,999 6,125 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$50,000 to $59,999 5,980 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$60,000 to $79,999 11,265 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$80,000 to $99,999 8,830 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$100,000 to $124,999 8,425 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$125,000 to $149,999 5,695 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$150,000 and over 9,535 not applicable ... not applicable ...
After-tax income of households in 2010 of private householdsFootnote 179 79,020 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Under $5,000 1,770 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$5,000 to $9,999 1,760 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$10,000 to $14,999 2,340 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$15,000 to $19,999 4,435 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$20,000 to $29,999 7,555 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$30,000 to $39,999 7,915 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$40,000 to $49,999 7,555 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$50,000 to $59,999 7,695 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$60,000 to $79,999 12,325 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$80,000 to $99,999 9,515 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$100,000 and over 16,155 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$100,000 to $124,999 7,580 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$125,000 and over 8,575 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Household income in 2010 of private householdsFootnote 180 79,020 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Median household total income $ 66,581 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average household total income $ 82,184 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Median after-tax household income $ 57,852 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average after-tax household income $ 68,002 not applicable ... not applicable ...
One-person private householdsFootnote 181 18,840 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Median household total income $ 30,702 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average household total income $ 38,326 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Median after-tax household income $ 27,625 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average after-tax household income $ 32,266 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Two-or-more-persons private householdsFootnote 182 60,180 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Median household total income $ 81,708 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average household total income $ 95,918 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Median after-tax household income $ 70,436 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average after-tax household income $ 79,193 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Population in private households for income statusFootnote 183 193,825 93,615 100,210
Less than 18 years 37,230 19,410 17,820
Less than 6 years 12,710 6,640 6,065
18 to 64 years 133,960 64,070 69,890
65 years and over 22,640 10,135 12,505
In low income in 2010 based on after-tax low-income measure (LIM-AT) 26,705 11,340 15,365
Less than 18 years 6,795 3,425 3,375
Less than 6 years 2,325 1,225 1,095
18 to 64 years 17,170 7,210 9,965
65 years and over 2,740 715 2,030
Prevalence of low income in 2010 based on after-tax low-income measure % 13.8 12.1 15.3
Less than 18 years % 18.3 17.6 18.9
Less than 6 years % 18.3 18.4 18.1
18 to 64 years % 12.8 11.3 14.3
65 years and over % 12.1 7.1 16.2

Symbol(s)

Symbol ..

not available for a specific reference period

..

Symbol ...

not applicable

...

Symbol x

suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act

x

Symbol F

too unreliable to be published

F

Footnote(s)

Footnote 1

For the 2011 National Household Survey (NHS) estimates, the global non-response rate (GNR) is used as an indicator of data quality. This indicator combines complete non-response (household) and partial non-response (question) into a single rate. The value of the GNR is presented to users. A smaller GNR indicates a lower risk of non-response bias and as a result, lower risk of inaccuracy. The threshold used for estimates' suppression is a GNR of 50% or more. For more information, please refer to the National Household Survey User Guide, 2011.

Return to footnote 1 referrer

Footnote 2

Citizenship refers to the legal citizenship status of a person. Citizenship can be by birth or naturalization. A person may have more than one citizenship. A person may be stateless, that is, they may have no citizenship.

Return to footnote 2 referrer

Footnote 3

Includes persons who are stateless.

Return to footnote 3 referrer

Footnote 4

Period of immigration refers to the period in which the immigrant first obtained his or her landed immigrant/permanent resident status. A landed immigrant/permanent resident refers to a person who has been granted the right to live permanently in Canada by immigration authorities.

Return to footnote 4 referrer

Footnote 5

Non-immigrant refers to a person who is a Canadian citizen by birth.

Return to footnote 5 referrer

Footnote 6

Immigrant refers to a person who is or has ever been a landed immigrant/permanent resident. This person has been granted the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities. Some immigrants have resided in Canada for a number of years, while others have arrived recently. Some immigrants are Canadian citizens, while others are not. Most immigrants are born outside Canada, but a small number are born in Canada. In the 2011 National Household Survey, 'Immigrants' includes immigrants who landed in Canada prior to May 10, 2011.

Return to footnote 6 referrer

Footnote 7

Includes immigrants who landed in Canada prior to May 10, 2011.

Return to footnote 7 referrer

Footnote 8

Includes immigrants who landed in Canada prior to May 10, 2011.

Return to footnote 8 referrer

Footnote 9

Non-permanent resident refers to a person from another country who has a work or study permit, or who is a refugee claimant, and any non-Canadian-born family member living in Canada with them.

Return to footnote 9 referrer

Footnote 10

Age at immigration refers to the age at which an immigrant first obtained landed immigrant/permanent resident status. Immigrant refers to a person who is or has ever been a landed immigrant/permanent resident. This person has been granted the right to live permanently in Canada by immigration authorities.

Return to footnote 10 referrer

Footnote 11

The places of birth selected are the most frequently reported by immigrants at the Canada level.

Return to footnote 11 referrer

Footnote 12

Non-immigrant refers to a person who is a Canadian citizen by birth.

Return to footnote 12 referrer

Footnote 13

Immigrant refers to a person who is or has ever been a landed immigrant/permanent resident. This person has been granted the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities. Some immigrants have resided in Canada for a number of years, while others have arrived recently. Some immigrants are Canadian citizens, while others are not. Most immigrants are born outside Canada, but a small number are born in Canada. In the 2011 National Household Survey, 'Immigrants' includes immigrants who landed in Canada prior to May 10, 2011.

Return to footnote 13 referrer

Footnote 14

The official name of United Kingdom is United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. United Kingdom includes Scotland, Wales, England and Northern Ireland (excludes Isle of Man, the Channel Islands and British Overseas Territories).

Return to footnote 14 referrer

Footnote 15

China excludes Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and Macao Special Administrative Region.

Return to footnote 15 referrer

Footnote 16

The official name of Viet Nam is Socialist Republic of Viet Nam.

Return to footnote 16 referrer

Footnote 17

The official name of Iran is Islamic Republic of Iran.

Return to footnote 17 referrer

Footnote 18

The official name of South Korea is Republic of Korea.

Return to footnote 18 referrer

Footnote 19

The category 'Oceania and other' includes places of birth in Oceania and responses not included elsewhere, such as 'born at sea.'

Return to footnote 19 referrer

Footnote 20

The category 'Other places of birth' includes other places of birth in Oceania and responses not included elsewhere, such as 'born at sea.'

Return to footnote 20 referrer

Footnote 21

Non-permanent resident refers to a person from another country who has a work or study permit, or who is a refugee claimant, and any non-Canadian-born family member living in Canada with them.

Return to footnote 21 referrer

Footnote 22

Recent immigrants are immigrants who landed in Canada between January 1, 2006 and May 10, 2011.

Immigrant refers to a person who is or has ever been a landed immigrant/permanent resident. This person has been granted the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities. Some immigrants have resided in Canada for a number of years, while others have arrived recently. Some immigrants are Canadian citizens, while others are not. Most immigrants are born outside Canada, but a small number are born in Canada.

The places of birth selected are the most frequently reported by recent immigrants at the Canada level.

Return to footnote 22 referrer

Footnote 23

The official name of Venezuela is Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela.

Return to footnote 23 referrer

Footnote 24

The official name of Moldova is Republic of Moldova.

Return to footnote 24 referrer

Footnote 25

The official name of United Kingdom is United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. United Kingdom includes Scotland, Wales, England and Northern Ireland (excludes Isle of Man, the Channel Islands and British Overseas Territories).

Return to footnote 25 referrer

Footnote 26

China excludes Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and Macao Special Administrative Region.

Return to footnote 26 referrer

Footnote 27

The official name of Iran is Islamic Republic of Iran.

Return to footnote 27 referrer

Footnote 28

The official name of South Korea is Republic of Korea.

Return to footnote 28 referrer

Footnote 29

The official name of Viet Nam is Socialist Republic of Viet Nam.

Return to footnote 29 referrer

Footnote 30

The official name of Syria is Syrian Arab Republic.

Return to footnote 30 referrer

Footnote 31

The category 'Oceania and other' includes places of birth in Oceania and responses not included elsewhere, such as 'born at sea.'

Return to footnote 31 referrer

Footnote 32

Generation status refers to whether or not the person or the person's parents were born in Canada. It identifies persons as being first generation, second generation or third generation or more.

Return to footnote 32 referrer

Footnote 33

'First generation' includes persons who were born outside Canada. For the most part, these are people who are now, or have ever been, immigrants to Canada.

Return to footnote 33 referrer

Footnote 34

'Second generation' includes persons who were born in Canada and had at least one parent born outside Canada. For the most part, these are the children of immigrants.

Return to footnote 34 referrer

Footnote 35

'Third generation or more' includes persons who were born in Canada with both parents born in Canada.

Return to footnote 35 referrer

Footnote 36

The Employment Equity Act defines visible minorities as 'persons, other than Aboriginal peoples, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in colour.'

Return to footnote 36 referrer

Footnote 37

For example, 'East Indian,' 'Pakistani,' 'Sri Lankan,' etc.

Return to footnote 37 referrer

Footnote 38

For example, 'Vietnamese,' 'Cambodian,' 'Malaysian,' 'Laotian,' etc.

Return to footnote 38 referrer

Footnote 39

For example, 'Iranian,' 'Afghan,' etc.

Return to footnote 39 referrer

Footnote 40

The abbreviation 'n.i.e.' means 'not included elsewhere.' Includes respondents who reported a write-in response such as 'Guyanese,' 'West Indian,' 'Tibetan,' 'Polynesian,' 'Pacific Islander,' etc.

Return to footnote 40 referrer

Footnote 41

Includes respondents who reported more than one visible minority group by checking two or more mark-in circles, e.g., 'Black' and 'South Asian.'

Return to footnote 41 referrer

Footnote 42

Includes respondents who reported 'Yes' to the Aboriginal identity question (Question 18) as well as respondents who were not considered to be members of a visible minority group.

Return to footnote 42 referrer

Footnote 43

This is a total population estimate. The sum of the ethnic groups in this table is greater than the total population estimate because a person may report more than one ethnic origin in the NHS.

Return to footnote 43 referrer

Footnote 44

Includes general responses indicating North American origins (e.g., 'North American') as well as more specific responses indicating North American origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Maritimer,' 'Manitoban').

Return to footnote 44 referrer

Footnote 45

Includes general responses indicating British Isles origins (e.g., 'British,' 'United Kingdom') as well as more specific responses indicating British Isles origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Celtic').

Return to footnote 45 referrer

Footnote 46

Includes general responses indicating Western European origins (e.g., 'Western European') as well as more specific responses indicating Western European origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Liechtensteiner').

Return to footnote 46 referrer

Footnote 47

Includes general responses indicating Northern European origins (e.g., 'Northern European') as well as more specific responses indicating Northern European origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Faroese,' 'Scandinavian').

Return to footnote 47 referrer

Footnote 48

Includes general responses indicating Eastern European origins (e.g., 'Eastern European') as well as more specific responses indicating Eastern European origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Baltic').

Return to footnote 48 referrer

Footnote 49

Includes general responses indicating Southern European origins (e.g., 'Southern European') as well as more specific responses indicating Southern European origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Gibraltarian').

Return to footnote 49 referrer

Footnote 50

Includes general responses indicating Other European origins (e.g., 'European') as well as more specific responses indicating European origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Central European').

Return to footnote 50 referrer

Footnote 51

Includes general responses indicating Caribbean origins (e.g., 'Caribbean') as well as more specific responses indicating Caribbean origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Guadelupian,' 'Aruban').

Return to footnote 51 referrer

Footnote 52

Includes general responses indicating Latin, Central or South American origins (e.g., 'South American') as well as more specific responses indicating Latin, Central or South American origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Surinamese').

Return to footnote 52 referrer

Footnote 53

Includes general responses indicating Central or West African origins (e.g., 'West African') as well as more specific responses indicating Central or West African origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Ewe,' 'Wolof').

Return to footnote 53 referrer

Footnote 54

Includes general responses indicating North African origins (e.g., 'North African') as well as more specific responses indicating North African origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Maghreb').

Return to footnote 54 referrer

Footnote 55

Includes general responses indicating Southern or East African origins (e.g., 'East African') as well as more specific responses indicating Southern or East African origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Hutu,' 'Shona').

Return to footnote 55 referrer

Footnote 56

Some respondents may choose to provide very specific ethnic origins in the National Household Survey (NHS), while other respondents may choose to give more general responses. This means that two respondents with the same ethnic ancestry could have different response patterns and thus could be counted as having different ethnic origins. For example, one respondent may report 'East Indian' ethnic origin while another respondent, with a similar ancestral background, may report 'Punjabi' or 'South Asian' origins; one respondent may report 'Black' while another, similar respondent, may report 'Ghanaian' or 'African.' As a result, ethnic origin data are very fluid, and counts for certain origins, such as 'East Indian' and 'Black,' may seem lower than initially expected. Users who wish to obtain broader response counts may wish to combine data for one or more ethnic origins together or use counts for ethnic categories such as 'South Asian origins' or 'African origins.' (Please note, however, that 'African origins' should not be considered equivalent to the 'Black' population group or visible minority status, as there are persons reporting African origins who report a population group or visible minority status other than 'Black.' Conversely, many people report a population group or visible minority status of 'Black' and do not report having 'African' origins. For information on population group and visible minority population in the 2011 NHS, refer to the appropriate definitions in this publication.)

Return to footnote 56 referrer

Footnote 57

Includes general responses indicating Other African origins (e.g., 'African') as well as more specific responses indicating Other African origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Saharan').

Return to footnote 57 referrer

Footnote 58

Includes general responses indicating West Asian, Central Asian and Middle Eastern origins (e.g., 'West Asian,' 'Middle Eastern') as well as more specific responses indicating West Asian, Central Asian and Middle Eastern origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Baloch,' 'Circassian').

Return to footnote 58 referrer

Footnote 59

Some respondents may choose to provide very specific ethnic origins in the National Household Survey (NHS), while other respondents may choose to give more general responses. This means that two respondents with the same ethnic ancestry could have different response patterns and thus could be counted as having different ethnic origins. For example, one respondent may report 'East Indian' ethnic origin while another respondent, with a similar ancestral background, may report 'Punjabi' or 'South Asian' origins; one respondent may report 'Black' while another, similar respondent, may report 'Ghanaian' or 'African.' As a result, ethnic origin data are very fluid, and counts for certain origins, such as 'East Indian' and 'Black,' may seem lower than initially expected. Users who wish to obtain broader response counts may wish to combine data for one or more ethnic origins together or use counts for ethnic categories such as 'South Asian origins' or 'African origins.' (Please note, however, that 'African origins' should not be considered equivalent to the 'Black' population group or visible minority status, as there are persons reporting African origins who report a population group or visible minority status other than 'Black.' Conversely, many people report a population group or visible minority status of 'Black' and do not report having 'African' origins. For information on population group and visible minority population in the 2011 NHS, refer to the appropriate definitions in this publication.)

Return to footnote 59 referrer

Footnote 60

Includes general responses indicating South Asian origins (e.g., 'South Asian') as well as more specific responses indicating South Asian origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Bhutanese').

Return to footnote 60 referrer

Footnote 61

Includes general responses indicating East and Southeast Asian origins (e.g., 'Southeast Asian') as well as more specific responses indicating East and Southeast Asian origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Bruneian,' 'Karen').

Return to footnote 61 referrer

Footnote 62

Includes general responses indicating Other Asian origins (e.g., 'Asian') as well as more specific responses indicating Other Asian origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Eurasian').

Return to footnote 62 referrer

Footnote 63

Includes general responses indicating Pacific Islands origins (e.g., 'Pacific Islander') as well as more specific responses indicating Pacific Islands origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Tahitian').

Return to footnote 63 referrer

Footnote 64

Religion refers to the person's self-identification as having a connection or affiliation with any religious denomination, group, body, sect, cult or other religiously defined community or system of belief. Religion is not limited to formal membership in a religious organization or group. Persons without a religious connection or affiliation can self-identify as atheist, agnostic or humanist, or can provide another applicable response.

Return to footnote 64 referrer

Footnote 65

'Aboriginal identity' includes persons who reported being an Aboriginal person, that is, First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuk (Inuit) and/or those who reported Registered or Treaty Indian status, that is registered under the Indian Act of Canada, and/or those who reported membership in a First Nation or Indian band. Aboriginal peoples of Canada are defined in the Constitution Act, 1982, section 35 (2) as including the Indian, Inuit and Métis peoples of Canada.

Return to footnote 65 referrer

Footnote 66

Users should be aware that the estimates associated with this variable are more affected than most by the incomplete enumeration of certain Indian reserves and Indian settlements in the National Household Survey (NHS). In 2011, there were a total of 36 Indian reserves and Indian settlements that were 'incompletely enumerated' in the NHS. For these reserves or settlements, NHS enumeration was either not permitted or was interrupted before it could be completed, or was not possible because of natural events (specifically forest fires in Northern Ontario). For additional information, please refer to the Aboriginal Peoples Reference Guide, National Household Survey (NHS), 2011.

Return to footnote 66 referrer

Footnote 67

'Multiple Aboriginal identities' includes persons who reported being any two or all three of the following: First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuk (Inuit).

Return to footnote 67 referrer

Footnote 68

'Aboriginal identities not included elsewhere' includes persons who did not report being First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuk (Inuit) but who did report Registered or Treaty Indian status and/or membership in a First Nation or Indian band.

Return to footnote 68 referrer

Footnote 69

Users should be aware that the estimates associated with this variable are more affected than most by the incomplete enumeration of certain Indian reserves and Indian settlements in the National Household Survey (NHS). In 2011, there were a total of 36 Indian reserves and Indian settlements that were 'incompletely enumerated' in the NHS. For these reserves or settlements, NHS enumeration was either not permitted or was interrupted before it could be completed, or was not possible because of natural events (specifically forest fires in Northern Ontario). For additional information, please refer to the Aboriginal Peoples Reference Guide, National Household Survey (NHS), 2011.

Return to footnote 69 referrer

Footnote 70

Registered or Treaty Indian status refers to whether or not a person reported being a Registered or Treaty Indian.
'Registered or Treaty Indian' includes persons who reported being a Registered or Treaty Indian in Question 20. Registered Indians are persons who are registered under the Indian Act of Canada. Treaty Indians are persons who belong to a First Nation or Indian band that signed a treaty with the Crown. Registered or Treaty Indians are sometimes also called Status Indians.

Return to footnote 70 referrer

Footnote 71

This is a total population estimate. The sum of the ancestries in this table is greater than the total population estimate because a person may report more than one ancestry (ethnic origin) in the NHS.

Return to footnote 71 referrer

Footnote 72

'Aboriginal ancestry' includes persons who reported one or more than one of First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuit ancestry in Question 17, either with or without also reporting a non-Aboriginal ancestry. The sum of the categories 'First Nations (North American Indian) ancestry', 'Métis ancestry' and 'Inuit ancestry' is thus greater than the sum of the total for 'Aboriginal ancestry' because persons who reported more than one Aboriginal ancestry are included in the response category for each Aboriginal ancestry they reported. All respondents with Aboriginal ancestry are counted in at least one of the categories 'First Nations (North American Indian) ancestry,' 'Métis ancestry' and 'Inuit ancestry' and also in the category 'Aboriginal ancestry.'

Aboriginal peoples of Canada are defined in the Constitution Act, 1982, section 35 (2) as including the Indian, Inuit and Métis peoples of Canada. Ancestry refers to the ethnic or cultural origins of the respondent's ancestors, an ancestor being usually more distant than a grandparent. A person can have more than one ethnic or cultural origin.

Return to footnote 72 referrer

Footnote 73

Users should be aware that the estimates associated with this variable are more affected than most by the incomplete enumeration of certain Indian reserves and Indian settlements in the National Household Survey (NHS). In 2011, there were a total of 36 Indian reserves and Indian settlements that were 'incompletely enumerated' in the NHS. For these reserves or settlements, NHS enumeration was either not permitted or was interrupted before it could be completed, or was not possible because of natural events (specifically forest fires in Northern Ontario). For additional information, please refer to the Aboriginal Peoples Reference Guide, National Household Survey (NHS), 2011.

Return to footnote 73 referrer

Footnote 74

'Non-Aboriginal ancestry only' includes persons who did not report First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuit ancestry in Question 17.

Return to footnote 74 referrer

Footnote 75

Refers to languages, other than English or French, in which the respondent can conduct a conversation. The category 'Non-official languages spoken' represents the sum of single language responses and multiple language responses received in the NHS. Hence, this total is greater than the total population.

Return to footnote 75 referrer

Footnote 76

Cree languages include the following categories: Cree not otherwise specified (which refers to those who reported 'Cree'), Swampy Cree, Plains Cree, Woods Cree, and a category labelled 'Cree not included elsewhere' (which includes Moose Cree, Northern East Cree and Southern East Cree).

Return to footnote 76 referrer

Footnote 77

This is a subtotal of all Aboriginal languages collected on May 10, 2011 that are not displayed separately here.

Return to footnote 77 referrer

Footnote 78

This is a subtotal of all non-Aboriginal languages, other than English or French, collected on May 10, 2011 that are not displayed separately here.

Return to footnote 78 referrer

Footnote 79

Refers to the status of a person with regard to the place of residence on the reference day, May 10, 2011, in relation to the place of residence on the same date one year earlier. Persons who have not moved are referred to as non-movers and persons who have moved from one residence to another are referred to as movers. Movers include non-migrants and migrants. Non-migrants are persons who did move but remained in the same city, town, township, village or Indian reserve. Migrants include internal migrants who moved to a different city, town, township, village or Indian reserve within Canada. External migrants include persons who lived outside Canada at the earlier reference date.

Return to footnote 79 referrer

Footnote 80

Refers to the status of a person with regard to the place of residence on the reference day, May 10, 2011, in relation to the place of residence on the same date five years earlier. Persons who have not moved are referred to as non-movers and persons who have moved from one residence to another are referred to as movers. Movers include non-migrants and migrants. Non-migrants are persons who did move but remained in the same city, town, township, village or Indian reserve. Migrants include internal migrants who moved to a different city, town, township, village or Indian reserve within Canada. External migrants include persons who lived outside Canada at the earlier reference date.

Return to footnote 80 referrer

Footnote 81

'Highest certificate, diploma or degree' refers to the highest certificate, diploma or degree completed based on a hierarchy which is generally related to the amount of time spent 'in-class.' For postsecondary completers, a university education is considered to be a higher level of schooling than a college education, while a college education is considered to be a higher level of education than in the trades. Although some trades requirements may take as long or longer to complete than a given college or university program, the majority of time is spent in on-the-job paid training and less time is spent in the classroom.

For further definitions, refer to the National Household Survey Dictionary, Catalogue no. 99-000-X. For any comments on collection, dissemination or data quality for this variable, refer to the Education Reference Guide, National Household Survey, Catalogue no. 99-012-X2011006.

Return to footnote 81 referrer

Footnote 82

'High school diploma or equivalent' includes persons who have graduated from a secondary school or equivalent. It excludes persons with a postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree.

Return to footnote 82 referrer

Footnote 83

'Postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree' includes 'apprenticeship or trades certificates or diplomas,' 'college, CEGEP or other non-university certificates or diplomas' and university certificates, diplomas and degrees.

Return to footnote 83 referrer

Footnote 84

'Apprenticeship or trades certificate or diploma' includes Registered Apprenticeship certificates (including Certificate of Qualification, Journeyperson's designation) and other trades certificates or diplomas such as pre-employment or vocational certificates and diplomas from brief trade programs completed at community colleges, institutes of technology, vocational centres, and similar institutions.

Return to footnote 84 referrer

Footnote 85

Comparisons with other data sources suggest that the category 'University certificate or diploma below the bachelor's level' was over-reported in the NHS. This category likely includes some responses that are actually college certificates or diplomas, bachelor's degrees or other types of education (e.g., university transfer programs, bachelor's programs completed in other countries, incomplete bachelor's programs, non-university professional designations). We recommend users interpret the results for the 'University certificate or diploma below the bachelor's level' category with caution.

Return to footnote 85 referrer

Footnote 86

'University certificate, diploma or degree above bachelor level' includes the categories 'University certificate or diploma above bachelor level,' 'Degree in medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine or optometry,' 'Master's degree' and 'Earned doctorate.'

Return to footnote 86 referrer

Footnote 87

'Highest certificate, diploma or degree' refers to the highest certificate, diploma or degree completed based on a hierarchy which is generally related to the amount of time spent 'in-class.' For postsecondary completers, a university education is considered to be a higher level of schooling than a college education, while a college education is considered to be a higher level of education than in the trades. Although some trades requirements may take as long or longer to complete than a given college or university program, the majority of time is spent in on-the-job paid training and less time is spent in the classroom.

For further definitions, refer to the National Household Survey Dictionary, Catalogue no. 99-000-X. For any comments on collection, dissemination or data quality for this variable, refer to the Education Reference Guide, National Household Survey, Catalogue no. 99-012-X2011006.

Return to footnote 87 referrer

Footnote 88

'High school diploma or equivalent' includes persons who have graduated from a secondary school or equivalent. It excludes persons with a postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree.

Return to footnote 88 referrer

Footnote 89

'Postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree' includes 'apprenticeship or trades certificates or diplomas,' 'college, CEGEP or other non-university certificates or diplomas' and university certificates, diplomas and degrees.

Return to footnote 89 referrer

Footnote 90

(4) 'Apprenticeship or trades certificate or diploma' includes Registered Apprenticeship certificates (including Certificate of Qualification, Journeyperson's designation) and other trades certificates or diplomas such as pre-employment or vocational certificates and diplomas from brief trade programs completed at community colleges, institutes of technology, vocational centres, and similar institutions.

Return to footnote 90 referrer

Footnote 91

Comparisons with other data sources suggest that the category 'University certificate or diploma below the bachelor's level' was over-reported in the NHS. This category likely includes some responses that are actually college certificates or diplomas, bachelor's degrees or other types of education (e.g., university transfer programs, bachelor's programs completed in other countries, incomplete bachelor's programs, non-university professional designations). We recommend users interpret the results for the 'University certificate or diploma below the bachelor's level' category with caution.

Return to footnote 91 referrer

Footnote 92

'University certificate, diploma or degree above bachelor level' includes the categories 'University certificate or diploma above bachelor level,' 'Degree in medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine or optometry,' 'Master's degree' and 'Earned doctorate.'

Return to footnote 92 referrer

Footnote 93

'Major field of study' is defined as the main discipline or subject of learning. It is collected for the highest certificate, diploma or degree above the high school or secondary school level and classified according to the Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP) Canada 2011. This variable shows the 'primary groupings,' a CIP variant.



For more information on the CIP classification, see the Classification of Instructional Programs, Canada 2011, Catalogue no. 12-590-X available from: www.statcan.gc.ca/concepts/classification-eng.htm.



For any comments on collection, dissemination or data quality for this variable, refer to the Education Reference Guide, National Household Survey, Catalogue no. 99-012-X2011006.

Return to footnote 93 referrer

Footnote 94

'No postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree' includes persons who have not completed a registered apprenticeship certificate (including Certificate of Qualification, Journeyperson's designation) or other trades certificate or diploma, a college, CEGEP or other non-university certificate or diploma, or a university certificate, diploma or degree.

Return to footnote 94 referrer

Footnote 95

Called 'Health, parks, recreation and fitness' in CIP Canada 2000.

Return to footnote 95 referrer

Footnote 96

Includes 'Multidisciplinary/interdisciplinary studies, other.'

Return to footnote 96 referrer

Footnote 97

'Location of study compared with province or territory of residence' indicates whether the 'Location of study' is the same as the province or territory of residence in 2011, a different Canadian province or territory, or outside Canada. 'Location of study' refers to the province, territory or country of the institution where the highest certificate, diploma or degree above the high school level was completed.



Users should be aware that some respondents may have reported the physical location of study rather than the location of the certificate, diploma or degree-granting institution. This could affect the responses of those who obtained a certificate, diploma or degree through a joint program or by distance learning with credentials granted in another province or country. In particular, a number of persons reported a location of study for a university credential in one of the territories (Yukon, Northwest Territories, Nunavut), even though there were no educational institutions in the territories with the authority to grant university degrees.



For any other comments on collection, dissemination or data quality for this variable or 'Location of study,' refer to the Education Reference Guide, National Household Survey, Catalogue no. 99-012-X2011006.

Return to footnote 97 referrer

Footnote 98

Population by language used most often at work

Refers to the language used most often at work, as reported on May 10, 2011 by the individuals aged 15 years and over who worked since January 1, 2010.

Return to footnote 98 referrer

Footnote 99

Cree languages include the following categories: Cree not otherwise specified (which refers to those who reported 'Cree'), Swampy Cree, Plains Cree, Woods Cree, and a category labelled 'Cree not included elsewhere' (which includes Moose Cree, Northern East Cree and Southern East Cree).

Return to footnote 99 referrer

Footnote 100

Population by language used most often at work.

Refers to the language used most often at work, as reported on May 10, 2011 by the individuals aged 15 years and over who worked since January 1, 2010.

Return to footnote 100 referrer

Footnote 101

Refers to whether a person was employed, unemployed or not in the labour force during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2011.

Return to footnote 101 referrer

In the past, this variable was called Labour force activity.

Return to footnote 101 referrer

Footnote 102

Refers to whether an employed person is an employee or is self-employed. The self-employed include persons with or without a business, as well as unpaid family workers.

Return to footnote 102 referrer

Footnote 103

Includes unemployed persons aged 15 years and over who have never worked for pay or in self-employment or who had last worked prior to January 1, 2010 only.

Return to footnote 103 referrer

Footnote 104

Experienced labour force refers to persons who, during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2011, were employed and the unemployed who had last worked for pay or in self-employment in either 2010 or 2011.

Return to footnote 104 referrer

Footnote 105

Includes self-employed with an incorporated business and self-employed with an unincorporated business. Also included among the self-employed are unpaid family workers.

Return to footnote 105 referrer

Footnote 106

Refers to the kind of work performed by persons during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2011, as determined by their kind of work and the description of the main activities in their job. The 2011 National Household Survey occupation data are produced according to the NOC 2011.

Return to footnote 106 referrer

Footnote 107

Unemployed persons aged 15 years and over who have never worked for pay or in self-employment or who had last worked prior to January 1, 2010 only.

Return to footnote 107 referrer

Footnote 108

Experienced labour force refers to persons who, during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2011, were employed and the unemployed who had last worked for pay or in self-employment in either 2010 or 2011.

Return to footnote 108 referrer

Footnote 109

Refers to the general nature of the business carried out in the establishment where the person worked. The 2011 National Household Survey industry data are produced according to the NAICS 2007.

Return to footnote 109 referrer

Footnote 110

Unemployed persons aged 15 years and over who have never worked for pay or in self-employment or who had last worked prior to January 1, 2010 only.

Return to footnote 110 referrer

Footnote 111

Experienced labour force refers to persons who, during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2011, were employed and the unemployed who had last worked for pay or in self-employment in either 2010 or 2011.

Return to footnote 111 referrer

Footnote 112

Refers to the number of weeks in which a person worked for pay or in self-employment in 2010 at all jobs held, even if only for a few hours, and whether these weeks were mostly full time (30 hours or more per week) or mostly part time (less than 30 hours per week).

Return to footnote 112 referrer

Footnote 113

Includes persons who never worked, persons who worked prior to 2010 only, or persons who worked in 2011 only.

Return to footnote 113 referrer

Footnote 114

Refers to persons who worked for pay or in self-employment in 2010. These persons were asked to report whether the weeks they worked in 2010 were full-time weeks (30 hours or more per week) or not, on the basis of all jobs held. Persons with a part-time job for part of the year and a full-time job for another part of the year were to report the information for the job at which they worked the most weeks.

Return to footnote 114 referrer

Footnote 115

Includes persons who never worked, persons who worked prior to 2010 only, or persons who worked in 2011 only.

Return to footnote 115 referrer

Footnote 116

Classification of respondents according to whether they worked at home, worked outside Canada, had no fixed workplace address or worked at a specific address (usual place of work).

Return to footnote 116 referrer

Footnote 117

Refers to the main mode of transportation a respondent uses to travel between his or her home and his or her place of work.

Return to footnote 117 referrer

Footnote 118

Refers to how many minutes it took for a person to travel from home to work. Median commuting duration is the value which divides the commuting duration into two equal halves, i.e., the commuting duration of individuals for the first half is below the median, while the commuting distance of individuals for the second half is above the median.

Return to footnote 118 referrer

Footnote 119

Time at which a respondent usually leaves home to go to work.

Return to footnote 119 referrer

Footnote 120

Condition of dwelling - Refers to whether the dwelling is in need of repairs. This does not include desirable remodelling or additions.

Return to footnote 120 referrer

Footnote 121

Period of construction - Refers to the period in time during which the building or dwelling was originally constructed.

Return to footnote 121 referrer

Footnote 122

Includes data up to May 10, 2011.

Return to footnote 122 referrer

Footnote 123

Rooms - Refers to enclosed areas within a private dwelling which are finished and suitable for year round living. The number of rooms of a private dwelling includes kitchens, bedrooms and finished rooms in the attic or basement.

The number of rooms of a private dwelling excludes bathrooms, halls, vestibules and rooms used solely for business purposes. Partially divided rooms are considered to be separate rooms if they are considered as such by the respondent (e.g., L-shaped diningroom and livingroom arrangements).

Return to footnote 123 referrer

Footnote 124

Bedrooms - Refers to rooms in a private dwelling that are designed mainly for sleeping purposes even if they are now used for other purposes, such as guest rooms and television rooms. Also included are rooms used as bedrooms now, even if they were not originally built as bedrooms, such as bedrooms in a finished basement.

Bedrooms exclude rooms designed for another use during the day such as dining rooms and living rooms even if they may be used for sleeping purposes at night. By definition, one-room private dwellings such as studio apartments have zero bedrooms.

Return to footnote 124 referrer

Footnote 125

Tenure - Refers to whether the household owns or rents their private dwelling, or whether the dwelling is band housing (on an Indian reserve or settlement).

Return to footnote 125 referrer

Footnote 126

Condominium status - Refers to whether the private dwelling is part of a condominium development. A condominium is a residential complex in which dwellings are owned individually while land and common elements are held in joint ownership with others.

Return to footnote 126 referrer

Footnote 127

Household maintainer - Refers to whether or not a person residing in the household is responsible for paying the rent, or the mortgage, or the taxes, or the electricity or other services or utilities. Where a number of people may contribute to the payments, more than one person in the household may be identified as a household maintainer. If no person in the household is identified as making such payments, the reference person is identified by default.

Return to footnote 127 referrer

Footnote 128

Primary household maintainer - First person in the household identified as someone who pays the rent or the mortgage, or the taxes, or the electricity bill, and so on, for the dwelling.

The order of the persons in a household is determined by the order in which the respondent lists the persons on the questionnaire. Generally, an adult is listed first followed, if applicable, by that person's spouse or common-law partner and by their children. The order does not necessarily correspond to the proportion of household payments made by the person.

Age - Refers to the age at last birthday before the reference date, that is, before May 10, 2011.

Return to footnote 128 referrer

Footnote 129

Persons per room - Refers to an indicator of the level of crowding in a private dwelling. It is calculated by dividing the number of persons in the household by the number of rooms in the dwelling.

Return to footnote 129 referrer

Footnote 130

Housing suitability - Housing suitability refers to whether a private household is living in suitable accommodations according to the National Occupancy Standard (NOS); that is, whether the dwelling has enough bedrooms for the size and composition of the household. A household is deemed to be living in suitable accommodations if its dwelling has enough bedrooms, as calculated using the NOS.

Housing suitability assesses the required number of bedrooms for a household based on the age, sex, and relationships among household members. An alternative variable, the number of persons per room, considers all rooms in a private dwelling and the number of household members.

Housing suitability and the National Occupancy Standard (NOS) on which it is based were developed by Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC) through consultations with provincial housing agencies.

Return to footnote 130 referrer

Footnote 131

Shelter-cost-to-income ratio - Percentage of a household's average total monthly income which is spent on shelter-related expenses. Those expenses include the monthly rent (for tenants) or the mortgage payment, property taxes and condominium fees (for owners) and the costs of electricity, heat, municipal services, etc. The percentage is calculated by dividing the total shelter-related expenses by the household's total monthly income and multiplying the result by 100.

Includes owner and tenant households in non-farm, non-reserve private dwellings with household total income greater than zero in 2010 (i.e., excludes negative or zero household total income).

The relatively high shelter costs to household income ratios for some households may have resulted from the difference in the reference period for shelter costs and household total income data. The reference period for shelter cost data is 2011, while household total income is reported for the year 2010. As well, for some households, the 2010 household total income may represent income for only part of a year.

Household total income - The total income of a household is the sum of the total incomes of all members of that household. Total income refers to the total of income from all sources, including employment income, income from government programs, pension income, investment income and any other money income, before income taxes and deductions, during the calendar year 2010.

Return to footnote 131 referrer

Footnote 132

Presence of mortgage - Refers to whether the owner households reported mortgage or loan payments for their dwelling.

Return to footnote 132 referrer

Footnote 133

Shelter-cost-to-income ratio for owner households - Percentage of an owner household's average total monthly income which is spent on shelter-related expenses. Those expenses include the mortgage payment, property taxes and condominium fees and the costs of electricity, heat, municipal services, etc. The percentage is calculated by dividing the total shelter-related expenses by the household's total monthly income and multiplying the result by 100.

Includes owner households in non-farm, non-reserve private dwellings with household total income greater than zero in 2010 (i.e., excludes negative or zero household total income).

The relatively high shelter costs to household income ratios for some households may have resulted from the difference in the reference period for shelter costs and household total income data. The reference period for shelter cost data is 2011, while household total income is reported for the year 2010. As well, for some households, the 2010 household total income may represent income for only part of a year.

Household total income - The total income of a household is the sum of the total incomes of all members of that household. Total income refers to the total of income from all sources, including employment income, income from government programs, pension income, investment income and any other money income, before income taxes and deductions, during the calendar year 2010.

Return to footnote 133 referrer

Footnote 134

Shelter cost for owned dwellings - Includes all shelter expenses paid by households that own their dwellings, such as the mortgage payment and the costs of electricity, heat, water and other municipal services, property taxes and condominium fees.

Return to footnote 134 referrer

Footnote 135

Shelter cost for owned dwellings - Includes all shelter expenses paid by households that own their dwellings, such as the mortgage payment and the costs of electricity, heat, water and other municipal services, property taxes and condominium fees.

Return to footnote 135 referrer

Footnote 136

Value of dwelling - Refers to the dollar amount expected by the owner if the dwelling were to be sold.

Return to footnote 136 referrer

Footnote 137

Value of dwelling - Refers to the dollar amount expected by the owner if the dwelling were to be sold.

Return to footnote 137 referrer

Footnote 138

Subsidized housing - Refers to whether the dwelling is subsidized. Subsidized housing includes rent geared to income, social housing, public housing, government-assisted housing, non-profit housing, rent supplements and housing allowances.

Return to footnote 138 referrer

Footnote 139

Shelter-cost-to-income ratio for tenant households - Percentage of a tenant household's average total monthly income which is spent on shelter-related expenses. Those expenses include the monthly rent and the costs of electricity, heat, municipal services, etc. The percentage is calculated by dividing the total shelter-related expenses by the household's total monthly income and multiplying the result by 100.


Includes tenant households in non-farm, non-reserve private dwellings with household total income greater than zero in 2010 (i.e., excludes negative or zero household total income).

The relatively high shelter costs to household income ratios for some households may have resulted from the difference in the reference period for shelter costs and household total income data. The reference period for shelter cost data is 2011, while household total income is reported for the year 2010. As well, for some households, the 2010 household total income may represent income for only part of a year.

Household total income - The total income of a household is the sum of the total incomes of all members of that household. Total income refers to the total of income from all sources, including employment income, income from government programs, pension income, investment income and any other money income, before income taxes and deductions, during the calendar year 2010.

Return to footnote 139 referrer

Footnote 140

Shelter costs for rented dwellings - Includes all shelter expenses paid by households that rent their dwellings, such as the monthly rent and the costs of electricity, heat and municipal services.

Return to footnote 140 referrer

Footnote 141

Shelter costs for rented dwellings - Includes all shelter expenses paid by households that rent their dwellings, such as the monthly rent and the costs of electricity, heat and municipal services.

Return to footnote 141 referrer

Footnote 142

Total income - Total income refers to monetary receipts from certain sources, before income taxes and deductions, during calendar year 2010. It includes employment income from wages, salaries, tips, commissions and net income from self-employment (for both unincorporated farm and non-farm activities); income from government sources, such as social assistance, child benefits, employment insurance, old age security pension, Canada or Quebec pension plan benefits and disability income; income from employer and personal pension sources, such as private pensions and payments from annuities and RRIFs; income from investment sources, such as dividends and interest on bonds, accounts, GICs and mutual funds; and other regular cash income, such as child support payments received, spousal support payments (alimony) received and scholarships. The monetary receipts included are those that tend to be of a regular and recurring nature. It excludes one-time receipts, such as lottery winnings, gambling winnings, cash inheritances, lump sum insurance settlements, capital gains and RRSP withdrawals. Capital gains are excluded because they are not by their nature regular and recurring. It is further assumed that they are less likely to be fully spent in the period in which they are received, unlike income that is regular and recurring. Also excluded are employer's contributions to registered pension plans, Canada and Quebec pension plans, and employment insurance. Finally, voluntary inter-household transfers, imputed rent, goods and services produced for barter, and goods produced for own consumption are excluded from this total income definition

Median income of individuals - The median income of a specified group of income recipients is that amount which divides their income size distribution into two halves, i.e., the incomes of the first half of individuals are below the median, while those of the second half are above the median. Median income is calculated from the individuals with income in that group (e.g., males aged 45 to 54 years).

Average income of individuals - Average income of individuals refers to the weighted mean total income of individuals aged 15 years and over who reported income for 2010. Average income is calculated from unrounded data by dividing the aggregate income of a specified group of individuals (e.g., males aged 45 to 54 years) by the number of individuals with income in that group.

Median and average incomes of individuals will be calculated for those individuals who are at least aged 15 years and who have an income (positive or negative).

Age - Refers to the age at last birthday before the reference date, that is, before May 10, 2011.

Return to footnote 142 referrer

Footnote 143

Including loss.

Return to footnote 143 referrer

Footnote 144

For population with income.

Return to footnote 144 referrer

Footnote 145

For population with income.

Return to footnote 145 referrer

Footnote 146

After-tax income - Refers to total income from all sources minus federal, provincial and territorial income taxes paid for 2010.

Median income of individuals - The median income of a specified group of income recipients is that amount which divides their income size distribution into two halves, i.e., the incomes of the first half of individuals are below the median, while those of the second half are above the median. Median income is calculated from the individuals with income in that group (e.g., males aged 45 to 54 years).

Average income of individuals - Average income of individuals refers to the weighted mean total income of individuals aged 15 years and over who reported income for 2010. Average income is calculated from unrounded data by dividing the aggregate income of a specified group of individuals (e.g., males aged 45 to 54 years) by the number of individuals with income in that group.


Median and average incomes of individuals will be calculated for those individuals who are at least aged 15 years and who have an income (positive or negative).

Age - Refers to the age at last birthday before the reference date, that is, before May 10, 2011.

Return to footnote 146 referrer

Footnote 147

Including loss.

Return to footnote 147 referrer

Footnote 148

For population with after-tax income.

Return to footnote 148 referrer

Footnote 149

For population with after-tax income.

Return to footnote 149 referrer

Footnote 150

Composition of income - The composition of the total income of a population group or a geographic area refers to the relative share of each income source or group of sources, expressed as a percentage of the aggregate total income of that group or area.
Total income - Total of income from all sources, including employment income, income from government programs, pension income, investment income and any other money income.
Age - Refers to the age at last birthday before the reference date, that is, before May 10, 2011.

Return to footnote 150 referrer

Footnote 151

Market income - Refers to the sum of employment income (wages and salaries, net farm income and net income from non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice), investment income, retirement pensions, superannuation and annuities (including those from RRSPs and RRIFs) and other money income. It is equivalent to total income before tax minus all government transfers and is also referred to as income before transfers and taxes.

Return to footnote 151 referrer

Footnote 152

Earnings or employment income - Total wages and salaries and net income from self-employment.

Return to footnote 152 referrer

Footnote 153

Wages and salaries - Refers to gross wages and salaries before deductions for such items as income tax, pensions and Employment Insurance. Included in this source are military pay and allowances, tips, commissions and cash bonuses, benefits from wage-loss replacement plans or income-maintenance insurance plans, supplementary unemployment benefits from an employer or union as well as all types of casual earnings during calendar year 2010. Other employment income such as taxable benefits, research grants and royalties are included.

Return to footnote 153 referrer

Footnote 154

Self-employment net income - Refers to the total amount received by persons aged 15 years and over during calendar year 2010 as net farm income from self-employment, or net non-farm income from unincorporated business and/or professional practice.

Net farm income - Refers to net income (gross receipts from farm sales minus depreciation and cost of operation) received during calendar year 2010 from the operation of a farm, either on the respondent's own account or in partnership. In the case of partnerships, only the respondent's share of income was reported. Included with gross receipts are cash advances received in 2010, dividends from cooperatives, rebates and farm-support payments to farmers from federal, provincial and regional agricultural programs (for example, milk subsidies and marketing board payments) and gross insurance proceeds such as payments from the AgriInvest and AgriStability programs. The value of income 'in kind,' such as agricultural products produced and consumed on the farm, is excluded.

Net non-farm income from unincorporated business and/or professional practice - Refers to net income (gross receipts minus expenses of operation such as wages, rents and depreciation) received during calendar year 2010 from the respondent's non-farm unincorporated business or professional practice. In the case of partnerships, only the respondent's share was reported. Also included is net income from persons babysitting in their own homes, persons providing room and board to non-relatives, self-employed fishers, hunters and trappers, operators of direct distributorships such as those selling and delivering cosmetics, as well as freelance activities of artists, writers, music teachers, hairdressers, dressmakers, etc.

Return to footnote 154 referrer

Footnote 155

Investment income - Refers to interest received during calendar year 2010 from deposits in banks, trust companies, cooperatives, credit unions, caisses populaires, etc., as well as interest on savings certificates, bonds and debentures, and all dividends from both Canadian and foreign corporate stocks and mutual funds. Also included is other investment income from either Canadian or foreign sources, such as net rents from real estate, mortgage and loan interest received, regular income from an estate or trust fund, and interest from insurance policies. Does not include capital gains or losses.

Return to footnote 155 referrer

Footnote 156

Retirement pensions - Refers to all regular income received by the respondent during calendar year 2010 as the result of having been a member of a pension plan of one or more employers. It includes payments received from all annuities, including payments from a Registered Retirement Income Fund (RRIF), a matured Registered Retirement Savings Plan (RRSP) in the form of a life annuity, a fixed-term annuity, or an income-averaging annuity contract; pensions paid to widow(er)s or other relatives of deceased pensioners; pensions of retired civil servants, Armed Forces personnel and Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) officers; annuity payments received from the Canadian Government Annuities Fund, an insurance company, etc. Does not include lump-sum death benefits, lump-sum benefits or withdrawals from a pension plan or RRSP, or refunds of over-contributions.

Return to footnote 156 referrer

Footnote 157

Other money income - Refers to regular cash income received during calendar year 2010 and not reported in any of the other sources listed on the questionnaire. For example, severance pay and retirement allowances, alimony, child support, periodic support from other persons not in the household, income from abroad (excluding dividends and interest), non refundable scholarships, bursaries, fellowships and study grants, and artists' project grants are included.

Return to footnote 157 referrer

Footnote 158

Government transfer payments - Refers to all cash benefits received from federal, provincial, territorial or municipal governments during 2010. This variable is derived by summing the amounts reported in:

- the Old Age Security pension and Guaranteed Income Supplement, Allowance and Allowance for the Survivor
- benefits from Canada Pension Plan or Quebec Pension Plan
- benefits from Employment Insurance
- child benefits
- other income from government sources.

Return to footnote 158 referrer

Footnote 159

Benefits from Canada or Quebec pension plan - Refers to benefits received during calendar year 2010 from the Canada or Quebec Pension Plan (For example, retirement pensions, survivors' benefits and disability pensions). Does not include lump-sum death benefits.

Return to footnote 159 referrer

Footnote 160

Old Age Security pensions and Guaranteed Income Supplement - Refers to Old Age Security pensions and Guaranteed Income Supplements paid to persons aged 65 years and over, and to the Allowance or Allowance for the survivor paid to 60- to 64-year-old spouses of old age security recipients or widow(er)s by the federal government during the calendar year 2010.

Return to footnote 160 referrer

Footnote 161

Benefits from employment insurance - Refers to total Employment Insurance benefits received during calendar year 2010, before income tax deductions. It includes benefits for unemployment, sickness, maternity, paternity, adoption, work sharing, retraining and benefits to self-employed fishers received under the federal Employment Insurance Program or the Quebec Parental Insurance Program.

Return to footnote 161 referrer

Footnote 162

Child benefits - Refers to payments received under the Canada Child Tax Benefit program during calendar year 2010 by parents with dependent children under 18 years of age. Included with the Canada Child Tax Benefit is the National Child Benefit Supplement (NCBS) for low-income families with children. The NCBS is the federal contribution to the National Child Benefit (NCB), a joint initiative of federal, provincial and territorial governments. Also included in this variable are child benefits, child disability benefits and earned income supplements provided by certain provinces and territories and the Universal Child Care Benefit (UCCB).

Return to footnote 162 referrer

Footnote 163

Other income from government sources - Refers to all transfer payments, excluding those covered as a separate income source (Canada Pension Plan or Quebec Pension Plan benefits, Old Age Security pensions and Guaranteed Income Supplements, Employment Insurance benefits and child benefits) received from federal, provincial, territorial or municipal programs during 2010.

Return to footnote 163 referrer

Footnote 164

Income tax paid - Refers to all federal, provincial and territorial taxes paid on 2010 income. Federal, provincial and territorial taxes paid refer to taxes on income, after taking into account exemptions, deductions, non-refundable tax credits and the Quebec abatement. These taxes are obtained from the income tax files for persons who allowed access to their income tax data and from direct responses on the questionnaire for others.

Return to footnote 164 referrer

Footnote 165

After-tax income - Refers to total income from all sources minus federal, provincial and territorial taxes paid for 2010.

Return to footnote 165 referrer

Footnote 166

Net capital gains or losses -
Refers to the net gains received or losses incurred during calendar year 2010 from the sale of capital property. This represents the proceeds of disposition minus the adjusted cost base of the property and outlays and expenses incurred to sell the property. Capital property includes depreciable property and any property which, if sold, would result in a capital gain or loss (for example, cottages, buildings and securities such as mutual funds).
Non-taxable capital gains or losses on the sale of a principal residence are excluded.

Net capital gains or losses are not included in the definition of Total income as published in standard products.

Net capital gains or losses are not included in the concept of total income but are expressed here as a percentage to obtain a relative measure of size.

Return to footnote 166 referrer

Footnote 167

Earnings or employment income - Refers to total income received by persons 15 years of age and over during calendar year 2010 as wages and salaries, net income from a non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice, and/or net farm self-employment income.

Wages and salaries - Refers to gross wages and salaries before deductions for such items as income tax, pensions and Employment Insurance. Included in this source are military pay and allowances, tips, commissions and cash bonuses, benefits from wage-loss replacement plans or income-maintenance insurance plans, supplementary unemployment benefits from an employer or union as well as all types of casual earnings during calendar year 2010. Other employment income such as taxable benefits, research grants and royalties are included.

Net non-farm income from unincorporated business or professional practice - Refers to net income (gross receipts minus expenses of operation such as wages, rents and depreciation) received during calendar year 2010 from the respondent's non-farm unincorporated business or professional practice. In the case of partnerships, only the respondent's share was reported. Also included is net income from persons babysitting in their own homes, persons providing room and board to non-relatives, self-employed fishers, hunters and trappers, operators of direct distributorships such as those selling and delivering cosmetics, as well as freelance activities of artists, writers, music teachers, hairdressers, dressmakers, etc.

Net farm income - Refers to net income (gross receipts from farm sales minus depreciation and cost of operation) received during calendar year 2010 from the operation of a farm, either on the respondent's own account or in partnership. In the case of partnerships, only the respondent's share of income was reported. Included with gross receipts are cash advances received in 2010, dividends from cooperatives, rebates and farm-support payments to farmers from federal, provincial and regional agricultural programs (for example, milk subsidies and marketing board payments) and gross insurance proceeds such as payments from the AgriInvest and AgriStability programs. The value of income 'in kind,' such as agricultural products produced and consumed on the farm, is excluded.

Median income of individuals - The median income of a specified group of income recipients is that amount which divides their income size distribution, ranked by size of income, into two halves, i.e., the incomes of the first half of individuals are below the median, while those of the second half are above the median. Median income is calculated from the unrounded number of individuals (e.g., males aged 45 to 54 years) with income in that group.

Average income of individuals - Average income of individuals refers to the weighted mean total income of individuals aged 15 years and over who reported income for 2010. Average income is calculated from unrounded data by dividing the aggregate income of a specified group of individuals (e.g., males aged 45 to 54 years) by the number of individuals with income in that group.
Median and average incomes of individuals will be calculated for those individuals who are at least aged 15 years and who have an income (positive or negative).

The above concept and procedures also apply in the calculation of these statistics for earnings.

Work activity in 2010 - Refers to the number of weeks in which a person worked for pay or in self-employment in 2010 at all jobs held, even if only for a few hours, and whether these weeks were mostly full time (30 hours or more per week) or mostly part time (less than 30 hours per week).

Age - Refers to the age at last birthday before the reference date, that is, before May 10, 2011.

Return to footnote 167 referrer

Footnote 168

Economic family total income - The total income of an economic family is the sum of the total incomes of all members of that family.

Total income - Total income refers to monetary receipts from certain sources, before income taxes and deductions, during calendar year 2010. It includes employment income from wages, salaries, tips, commissions and net income from self-employment (for both unincorporated farm and non-farm activities); income from government sources, such as social assistance, child benefits, employment insurance, old age security pension, Canada or Quebec pension plan benefits and disability income; income from employer and personal pension sources, such as private pensions and payments from annuities and RRIFs; income from investment sources, such as dividends and interest on bonds, accounts, GICs and mutual funds; and other regular cash income, such as child support payments received, spousal support payments (alimony) received and scholarships. The monetary receipts included are those that tend to be of a regular and recurring nature. It excludes one-time receipts, such as lottery winnings, gambling winnings, cash inheritances, lump sum insurance settlements, capital gains and RRSP withdrawals. Capital gains are excluded because they are not by their nature regular and recurring. It is further assumed that they are less likely to be fully spent in the period in which they are received, unlike income that is regular and recurring. Also excluded are employer's contributions to registered pension plans, Canada and Quebec pension plans, and employment insurance. Finally, voluntary inter-household transfers, imputed rent, goods and services produced for barter, and goods produced for own consumption are excluded from this total income definition.

After-tax income of economic families - The after-tax income of an economic family is the sum of the after-tax incomes of all members of that family. After-tax income of family members or persons not in families refers to total income from all sources minus federal, provincial and territorial income taxes paid for 2010.

Median income of economic families - The median income of a specified group of families is that amount which divides their income size distribution, ranked by size of income, into two halves. That is, the incomes of the first half of the families are below the median, while those of the second half are above the median. Median incomes of families are normally calculated for all units in the specified group, whether or not they reported income.

Average income of economic families - Average income of economic families refers to the weighted mean total income of families in 2010. Average income is calculated from unrounded data by dividing the aggregate income of a specified group of families (for example, husband-wife families with working wives) by the number of families in that group, whether or not they reported income.

The above concept and procedures also apply in the calculation of these statistics on the after-tax income of economic families.


Economic family - Refers to a group of two or more persons who live in the same dwelling and are related to each other by blood, marriage, common-law, adoption or a foster relationship. A couple may be of opposite or same sex.

Return to footnote 168 referrer

Footnote 169

Economic family structure - Refers to the classification of economic families as couple families, lone-parent families or other economic families.
Couple families - Those in which a member of either a married or common-law couple is the economic family reference person.
Lone-parent families - Those in which either a male or female lone parent is the economic family reference person.
Other economic families - Those in which the economic family reference person has other relatives but does not have a married spouse or common-law partner or a child in their census family.

Return to footnote 169 referrer

Footnote 170

Economic family structure - Refers to the classification of economic families as couple families, lone-parent families or other economic families.
Couple families - Those in which a member of either a married or common-law couple is the economic family reference person.
Lone-parent families - Those in which either a male or female lone parent is the economic family reference person.
Other economic families - Those in which the economic family reference person has other relatives but does not have a married spouse or common-law partner or a child in their census family.

Presence of children - Refers to the number of children in private households by age groups. To be included, children must live in the same household as the family, without a married spouse, common-law partner or one or more of their children living in the same household. In a census family, they may be children by birth, marriage or adoption. In an economic family, foster children are also included.

Return to footnote 170 referrer

Footnote 171

Economic family structure - Refers to the classification of economic families as couple families, lone-parent families or other economic families.

Couple families - Those in which a member of either a married or common-law couple is the economic family reference person.

Lone-parent families - Those in which either a male or female lone parent is the economic family reference person.

Other economic families - Those in which the economic family reference person has other relatives but does not have a married spouse or common-law partner or a child in their census family.

Return to footnote 171 referrer

Footnote 172

Total income - Total income refers to monetary receipts from certain sources, before income taxes and deductions, during calendar year 2010. It includes employment income from wages, salaries, tips, commissions and net income from self-employment (for both unincorporated farm and non-farm activities); income from government sources, such as social assistance, child benefits, employment insurance, old age security pension, Canada or Quebec pension plan benefits and disability income; income from employer and personal pension sources, such as private pensions and payments from annuities and RRIFs; income from investment sources, such as dividends and interest on bonds, accounts, GICs and mutual funds; and other regular cash income, such as child support payments received, spousal support payments (alimony) received and scholarships. The monetary receipts included are those that tend to be of a regular and recurring nature. It excludes one-time receipts, such as lottery winnings, gambling winnings, cash inheritances, lump sum insurance settlements, capital gains and RRSP withdrawals. Capital gains are excluded because they are not by their nature regular and recurring. It is further assumed that they are less likely to be fully spent in the period in which they are received, unlike income that is regular and recurring. Also excluded are employer's contributions to registered pension plans, Canada and Quebec pension plans, and employment insurance. Finally, voluntary inter-household transfers, imputed rent, goods and services produced for barter, and goods produced for own consumption are excluded from this total income definition.

After-tax income - Refers to total income from all sources minus federal, provincial and territorial income taxes paid for 2010.

Median income of persons not in economic families - The median income of a specified group of persons not in economic families (for example, males aged 55 to 64) is that amount which divides their income size distribution, ranked by size of income, into two halves. That is, the incomes of the first half of the persons are below the median, while those of the second half are above the median. Median incomes of persons not in economic families are normally calculated for all units in the specified group, whether or not they reported income.

Average income of persons not in economic families - Average income of persons not in economic families refers to the weighted mean total income of the persons not in economic families in 2010. Average income is calculated from unrounded data by dividing the aggregate income of a specified group of persons not in economic families by the number of persons in that group, whether or not they reported income.

The above concept and procedures also apply in the calculation of these statistics on the after-tax income of persons not in economic families.

Age - Refers to the age at last birthday before the reference date, that is, before May 10, 2011.

Economic family persons refer to two or more household members who are related to each other by blood, marriage, common-law, adoption or a foster relationship, and thereby constitute an economic family.

Persons not in economic families refer to household members who do not belong to an economic family, including persons living alone.

Return to footnote 172 referrer

Footnote 173

Calculation includes persons not in economic families without income (with an income of zero).

Return to footnote 173 referrer

Footnote 174

Calculation includes persons not in economic families without income (with an income of zero).

Return to footnote 174 referrer

Footnote 175

Calculation includes persons not in economic families without after-tax income (with an after-tax income of zero).

Return to footnote 175 referrer

Footnote 176

Calculation includes persons not in economic families without after-tax income (with an after-tax income of zero).

Return to footnote 176 referrer

Footnote 177

Adjusted after-tax income for economic families and persons not in economic families - For economic family members, this refers to economic family after-tax income that has been adjusted by a factor that accounts for family size. The adjustment factor takes into account the lower relative needs of additional family members, as compared to a single person living alone. For use with the NHS income data, the adjusted after-tax income is computed as the economic family after-tax income divided by the square root of family size.
For persons not in economic families, the adjusted after-tax income is set at after-tax income. This is equivalent to a factor of 1.0 for a person not in an economic family.

Decile of adjusted after-tax family income - The deciles divide the population ranked by size of adjusted after-tax family income into 10 groups of equal size. The population in the bottom decile is the one who falls in the lower 10 percent of the adjusted after-tax family income distribution. The population in the top decile is the one who falls in the highest ten percent of the adjusted after-tax family income distribution. The 10 groups were formed with the full population in private households of Canada, whether or not they reported income.

Return to footnote 177 referrer

Footnote 178

Household total income - The total income of a household is the sum of the total incomes of all members of that household.

Total income - Total income refers to monetary receipts from certain sources, before income taxes and deductions, during calendar year 2010. It includes employment income from wages, salaries, tips, commissions and net income from self-employment (for both unincorporated farm and non-farm activities); income from government sources, such as social assistance, child benefits, employment insurance, old age security pension, Canada or Quebec pension plan benefits and disability income; income from employer and personal pension sources, such as private pensions and payments from annuities and RRIFs; income from investment sources, such as dividends and interest on bonds, accounts, GICs and mutual funds; and other regular cash income, such as child support payments received, spousal support payments (alimony) received and scholarships. The monetary receipts included are those that tend to be of a regular and recurring nature. It excludes one-time receipts, such as lottery winnings, gambling winnings, cash inheritances, lump sum insurance settlements, capital gains and RRSP withdrawals. Capital gains are excluded because they are not by their nature regular and recurring. It is further assumed that they are less likely to be fully spent in the period in which they are received, unlike income that is regular and recurring. Also excluded are employer's contributions to registered pension plans, Canada and Quebec pension plans, and employment insurance. Finally, voluntary inter-household transfers, imputed rent, goods and services produced for barter, and goods produced for own consumption are excluded from this total income definition.

Household, private - Refers to a person or a group of persons (other than foreign residents) who occupy the same private dwelling and do not have a usual place of residence elsewhere in Canada. Household members who are temporarily absent on May 10, 2011 (e.g., temporarily residing elsewhere) are considered as part of their usual household. Every person is a member of one and only one household.

Return to footnote 178 referrer

Footnote 179

After-tax income of households - The after-tax income of a household is the sum of the after-tax incomes of all members of that household.

After-tax income - Refers to total income from all sources minus federal, provincial and territorial income taxes paid for 2010.

Household, private - Refers to a person or a group of persons (other than foreign residents) who occupy the same private dwelling and do not have a usual place of residence elsewhere in Canada. Household members who are temporarily absent on May 10, 2011 (e.g., temporarily residing elsewhere) are considered as part of their usual household. Every person is a member of one and only one household.

Return to footnote 179 referrer

Footnote 180

Household total income - The total income of a household is the sum of the total incomes of all members of that household.

After-tax income of households - The after-tax income of a household is the sum of the after-tax incomes of all members of that household.

Total income - Total of income from all sources, including employment income, income from government programs, pension income, investment income and any other money income.

After-tax income - Refers to total income from all sources minus federal, provincial and territorial income taxes paid for 2010.
Median income of households - The median income of a specified group of households is that amount which divides their income size distribution, ranked by size of income, into two halves. That is, the incomes of the first half of the households are below the median, while those of the second half are above the median. Median incomes of households are normally calculated for all units in the specified group, whether or not they reported income.

Average income of households - Average income of households refers to the weighted mean total income of households in 2010. Average income is calculated from unrounded data by dividing the aggregate income of a specified group of households (for example, two person households) by the number of households in that specific group, whether or not they reported income.

The above concept and procedures also apply in the calculation of these statistics on the after-tax income of households.

Household, private - Refers to a person or a group of persons (other than foreign residents) who occupy the same private dwelling and do not have a usual place of residence elsewhere in Canada. Household members who are temporarily absent on May 10, 2011 (e.g., temporarily residing elsewhere) are considered as part of their usual household. Every person is a member of one and only one household.

Return to footnote 180 referrer

Footnote 181

Household size - Refers to the number of usual residents in a private household.

Return to footnote 181 referrer

Footnote 182

Household size - Refers to the number of usual residents in a private household.

Return to footnote 182 referrer

Footnote 183

Income status can be measured in several different ways in household surveys. For the standard products of the National Household Survey, the line chosen is a relative measure: the after-tax low-income measure (LIM-AT).

For this measure, the income used is after-tax income of households. There are no regional variations to account for prices or cost of living differences: all applicable households in Canada face the same line adjusted for household size. This line is set at half the median of adjusted household after-tax income. To account for potential economies of scale, the income of households with more than one member is divided by the square root of the size of the household.

All household members are considered to share the household income and are attributed the same income status.

Note: Low-income estimates in the 2011 National Household Survey

For the 2011 National Household Survey (NHS), low-income statistics are presented based on the after-tax low-income measure (LIM-AT). This measure is not related to the low-income cut-offs (LICO) presented in the 2006 Census and prevalence rates are conceptually not comparable. Because of the sensitivity of certain income indicators to differences in methodology and response patterns, direct comparisons to establish trends with low-income estimates from other household surveys, administrative programs or the 2006 Census are discouraged. The prevalence rates observed in the NHS at the national level are generally 1 to 2 percentage points higher than seen for similar concepts in other programs. However, analysis of the NHS data suggests that it is valid to compare low-income data for different sub-populations within the NHS (i.e., for different geographic areas or demographic groups). For more information, refer to the Income Reference Guide, National Household Survey, Catalogue no. 99-014-X2011006.

Age - Refers to the age at last birthday before the reference date, that is, before May 10, 2011.

Return to footnote 183 referrer

Source: Statistics Canada, 2011 National Household Survey, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 99-014-X2011015.

Date modified: