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2011 National Household Survey: Data tables

Tabulation: Profile - Immigration and Ethnocultural Diversity, Aboriginal Peoples, Education and Labour, Mobility and Migration, and Income and Housing for Canada, Provinces, Territories and Federal Electoral Districts (2013 Representation Order), National Household Survey, 2011

Data table

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This table details profile - immigration and ethnocultural diversity, aboriginal peoples, education and labour, mobility and migration, and income and housing in CanadaFootnote 1
Global non-response rate (GNR)Footnote 2 = 26.1 %
Profile of Federal Electoral Districts (2013 Representation Order) (960) Sex (3)
Total - Sex Male Female
Total population in private households by citizenshipFootnote 3 32,852,325 16,163,115 16,689,210
Canadian citizens 30,895,305 15,232,595 15,662,710
Canadian citizens aged under 18 6,576,425 3,381,275 3,195,140
Canadian citizens aged 18 and over 24,318,885 11,851,320 12,467,565
Not Canadian citizensFootnote 4 1,957,015 930,520 1,026,500
Total population in private households by immigrant status and period of immigrationFootnote 5 32,852,320 16,163,110 16,689,210
Non-immigrantsFootnote 6 25,720,170 12,753,235 12,966,935
ImmigrantsFootnote 7 6,775,765 3,231,365 3,544,400
Before 1971 1,261,060 605,430 655,625
1971 to 1980 870,775 416,675 454,100
1981 to 1990 949,895 454,570 495,325
1991 to 2000 1,539,055 724,910 814,145
2001 to 2011Footnote 8 2,154,990 1,029,790 1,125,200
2001 to 2005 992,070 474,545 517,530
2006 to 2011Footnote 9 1,162,915 555,250 607,670
Non-permanent residentsFootnote 10 356,380 178,510 177,870
Total immigrant population in private households by age at immigrationFootnote 11 6,775,770 3,231,365 3,544,400
Under 5 years 671,795 332,650 339,145
5 to 14 years 1,186,050 601,425 584,625
15 to 24 years 1,540,430 698,485 841,950
25 to 44 years 2,767,110 1,320,925 1,446,185
45 years and over 610,385 277,885 332,500
Total population in private households by immigrant status and selected places of birthFootnote 12 32,852,325 16,163,115 16,689,210
Non-immigrantsFootnote 13 25,720,175 12,753,235 12,966,940
Born in province of residence 21,853,870 10,848,695 11,005,170
Born outside province of residence 3,866,305 1,904,535 1,961,765
ImmigrantsFootnote 14 6,775,765 3,231,365 3,544,400
Americas 1,060,230 478,150 582,085
United States 263,470 117,030 146,440
Jamaica 126,030 52,655 73,380
Guyana 87,945 39,105 48,835
Haiti 80,100 34,780 45,315
Mexico 69,695 32,765 36,930
Trinidad and Tobago 67,205 30,150 37,055
Colombia 60,555 28,555 31,995
El Salvador 43,655 21,995 21,660
Peru 26,715 11,745 14,970
Chile 25,195 12,395 12,805
Other places of birth in Americas 209,665 96,975 112,695
Europe 2,127,785 1,033,835 1,093,955
United KingdomFootnote 15 537,040 257,285 279,755
Italy 256,825 129,970 126,855
Germany 152,345 72,330 80,010
Poland 152,290 68,855 83,435
Portugal 138,520 67,895 70,625
Netherlands 98,510 50,195 48,310
France 90,440 46,905 43,540
Romania 82,595 39,635 42,960
Russian Federation 73,030 32,945 40,085
Greece 66,475 34,090 32,390
Ukraine 65,450 29,340 36,110
Croatia 40,015 19,470 20,545
Hungary 38,985 19,195 19,790
Bosnia and Herzegovina 35,885 18,290 17,600
Serbia 32,605 15,780 16,820
Ireland, Republic of 28,035 13,485 14,560
Other places of birth in Europe 238,740 118,175 120,565
Africa 492,025 251,025 241,000
Morocco 56,280 29,560 26,715
Algeria 51,085 27,345 23,735
Egypt 49,930 26,630 23,305
South Africa, Republic of 40,550 20,070 20,480
Nigeria 27,625 14,515 13,105
Ethiopia 24,535 11,845 12,690
Kenya 24,510 11,485 13,025
Other places of birth in Africa 217,505 109,570 107,940
Asia 3,041,100 1,441,675 1,599,435
India 547,890 271,495 276,400
ChinaFootnote 16 545,535 247,815 297,720
Philippines 454,340 190,120 264,215
Hong Kong Special Administrative Region 205,425 97,010 108,420
Viet NamFootnote 17 165,130 77,945 87,180
Pakistan 156,865 80,410 76,455
Sri Lanka 132,130 65,650 66,475
IranFootnote 18 120,685 61,780 58,905
Korea, SouthFootnote 19 112,400 52,815 59,585
Lebanon 81,110 43,415 37,695
Taiwan 66,455 30,560 35,900
Iraq 49,520 25,635 23,880
Bangladesh 45,325 23,410 21,915
Afghanistan 40,945 20,655 20,290
Japan 25,805 8,000 17,805
Turkey 25,275 13,420 11,855
Other places of birth in Asia 266,285 131,540 134,740
Oceania and otherFootnote 20 54,625 26,690 27,935
Fiji 24,290 11,415 12,875
Other places of birthFootnote 21 30,335 15,275 15,055
Non-permanent residentsFootnote 22 356,380 178,510 177,870
Total recent immigrant population in private households by selected places of birthFootnote 23 1,162,920 555,245 607,665
Americas 188,730 90,345 98,385
United States 45,010 22,225 22,790
Mexico 22,310 10,735 11,570
Cuba 5,555 2,910 2,645
Haiti 19,305 8,690 10,610
Jamaica 9,805 4,770 5,030
Brazil 9,540 4,460 5,075
Colombia 27,555 13,260 14,300
Guyana 6,010 2,585 3,425
Peru 6,410 2,735 3,680
VenezuelaFootnote 24 6,185 3,000 3,185
Other places of birth in Americas 31,045 14,975 16,070
Europe 159,745 79,565 80,180
France 20,380 10,745 9,635
Germany 10,455 5,255 5,205
Poland 5,365 1,990 3,375
Romania 13,365 6,145 7,220
MoldovaFootnote 25 6,565 3,255 3,315
Russian Federation 17,100 7,680 9,415
Ukraine 12,385 5,465 6,925
United KingdomFootnote 26 32,960 18,320 14,640
Other places of birth in Europe 41,160 20,715 20,450
Africa 145,725 73,470 72,255
Nigeria 13,035 6,695 6,345
Ethiopia 6,590 3,055 3,535
Mauritius 4,195 2,070 2,120
Somalia 4,315 2,040 2,275
Algeria 21,245 10,565 10,680
Egypt 11,105 5,865 5,235
Morocco 20,300 10,240 10,055
Tunisia 4,760 2,865 1,895
Cameroon 5,420 2,780 2,645
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the 5,870 2,720 3,150
South Africa, Republic of 5,660 2,730 2,930
Other places of birth in Africa 43,230 21,845 21,385
Asia 661,575 307,935 353,635
Philippines 152,270 66,980 85,290
ChinaFootnote 27 122,090 54,290 67,800
India 121,420 60,075 61,345
Pakistan 35,040 16,890 18,150
IranFootnote 28 30,290 14,870 15,425
South KoreaFootnote 29 27,665 12,720 14,945
Sri Lanka 21,435 10,170 11,255
Iraq 16,915 8,365 8,550
Bangladesh 14,110 7,050 7,060
Lebanon 12,420 6,635 5,780
Viet NamFootnote 30 11,275 4,235 7,045
Taiwan 9,295 4,255 5,040
Afghanistan 8,425 4,325 4,100
Japan 6,385 1,660 4,720
Turkey 5,850 3,105 2,745
Israel 5,230 2,605 2,620
Nepal 5,210 2,725 2,485
Hong Kong Special Administrative Region 4,805 1,940 2,865
United Arab Emirates 4,800 2,445 2,360
Saudi Arabia 4,340 2,440 1,895
SyriaFootnote 31 4,155 2,145 2,010
Other places of birth in Asia 38,140 18,005 20,135
Oceania and otherFootnote 32 7,145 3,930 3,220
Total population in private households by generation statusFootnote 33 32,852,320 16,163,110 16,689,210
First generationFootnote 34 7,217,300 3,454,225 3,763,070
Second generationFootnote 35 5,702,725 2,840,865 2,861,860
Third generation or moreFootnote 36 19,932,300 9,868,020 10,064,275
Total population in private households by visible minority 32,852,320 16,163,110 16,689,210
Total visible minority populationFootnote 37 6,264,750 3,043,010 3,221,740
South AsianFootnote 38 1,567,405 790,755 776,645
Chinese 1,324,750 632,325 692,425
Black 945,665 453,005 492,660
Filipino 619,310 268,885 350,425
Latin American 381,280 186,355 194,925
Arab 380,625 203,485 177,140
Southeast AsianFootnote 39 312,075 154,035 158,045
West AsianFootnote 40 206,840 105,620 101,220
Korean 161,130 77,165 83,960
Japanese 87,265 38,275 48,995
Visible minority, n.i.e.Footnote 41 106,475 49,765 56,705
Multiple visible minoritiesFootnote 42 171,935 83,340 88,600
Not a visible minorityFootnote 43 26,587,570 13,120,105 13,467,465
Total population in private households by ethnic originsFootnote 44 32,852,325 16,163,115 16,689,210
North American Aboriginal origins 1,836,035 885,670 950,360
First Nations (North American Indian) 1,369,120 658,050 711,065
Inuit 72,615 35,895 36,720
Métis 447,650 217,400 230,250
Other North American origins 11,070,455 5,462,685 5,607,770
Acadian 115,895 56,435 59,460
American 372,575 179,465 193,115
Canadian 10,563,805 5,214,090 5,349,715
New Brunswicker 1,900 865 1,040
Newfoundlander 22,040 11,580 10,455
Nova Scotian 2,845 1,400 1,440
Ontarian 3,865 1,800 2,060
Québécois 193,880 97,450 96,435
Other North American origins, n.i.e.Footnote 45 4,050 2,010 2,045
European origins 20,157,965 9,913,145 10,244,820
British Isles origins 11,343,705 5,531,110 5,812,605
Channel Islander 3,320 1,735 1,590
Cornish 1,765 1,010 750
English 6,509,500 3,159,130 3,350,365
Irish 4,544,865 2,155,710 2,389,160
Manx 4,730 2,410 2,320
Scottish 4,714,970 2,284,195 2,430,775
Welsh 458,700 219,565 239,140
British Isles origins, n.i.e.Footnote 46 576,030 275,345 300,685
French origins 5,077,220 2,476,130 2,601,085
Alsatian 2,700 1,275 1,425
Breton 14,295 7,105 7,185
French 5,065,685 2,470,555 2,595,130
Western European origins (except French origins) 4,439,955 2,179,305 2,260,645
Austrian 197,990 97,350 100,640
Belgian 176,615 87,360 89,260
Dutch 1,067,250 526,105 541,140
Flemish 13,845 6,875 6,970
Frisian 5,055 2,720 2,335
German 3,203,325 1,568,295 1,635,035
Luxembourger 3,790 1,910 1,875
Swiss 146,830 72,890 73,935
Western European origins, n.i.e.Footnote 47 2,735 1,380 1,355
Northern European origins (except British Isles origins) 1,164,425 562,390 602,030
Danish 203,080 98,550 104,530
Finnish 136,215 65,325 70,885
Icelandic 94,210 46,140 48,065
Norwegian 452,710 220,440 232,265
Swedish 341,845 160,565 181,280
Northern European origins, n.i.e.Footnote 48 43,065 21,650 21,415
Eastern European origins 3,142,770 1,532,520 1,610,245
Bulgarian 30,485 14,965 15,520
Byelorussian 15,565 7,240 8,320
Czech 94,805 46,650 48,155
Czechoslovakian, n.o.s. 40,030 18,975 21,060
Estonian 23,180 10,580 12,610
Hungarian 316,760 156,285 160,475
Latvian 27,355 13,310 14,040
Lithuanian 49,130 24,420 24,710
Moldovan 8,055 4,090 3,965
Polish 1,010,705 488,175 522,525
Romanian 204,625 99,560 105,070
Russian 550,515 264,365 286,145
Slovak 66,545 32,705 33,845
Ukrainian 1,251,170 610,895 640,275
Eastern European origins, n.i.e.Footnote 49 11,330 5,670 5,665
Southern European origins 2,798,395 1,391,820 1,406,580
Albanian 28,270 14,525 13,745
Bosnian 22,915 11,605 11,310
Croatian 114,880 57,845 57,035
Cypriot 4,815 2,240 2,580
Greek 252,960 129,800 123,155
Italian 1,488,425 744,730 743,695
Kosovar 2,760 1,365 1,400
Macedonian 36,990 18,735 18,250
Maltese 38,785 19,555 19,230
Montenegrin 2,970 1,555 1,415
Portuguese 429,855 213,330 216,525
Serbian 80,320 40,660 39,655
Sicilian 5,975 3,135 2,845
Slovenian 37,170 18,400 18,775
Spanish 368,310 173,590 194,715
Yugoslavian, n.o.s. 48,320 23,685 24,635
Southern European origins, n.i.e.Footnote 50 965 450 515
Other European origins 371,705 187,060 184,645
Basque 5,565 2,970 2,595
Jewish 309,650 154,375 155,275
Roma (Gypsy) 5,255 2,495 2,760
Slavic, n.o.s. 4,660 2,445 2,215
Other European origins, n.i.e.Footnote 51 48,765 25,990 22,775
Caribbean origins 627,590 291,645 335,950
Antiguan 3,630 1,930 1,705
Bahamian 2,505 1,390 1,115
Barbadian 34,340 15,655 18,680
Bermudan 2,765 1,295 1,475
Carib 3,295 1,365 1,930
Cuban 21,440 10,500 10,940
Dominican 16,720 8,055 8,665
Grenadian 14,885 6,610 8,280
Haitian 137,995 63,915 74,080
Jamaican 256,910 119,275 137,635
Kittitian/Nevisian 2,220 925 1,300
Martinican 1,420 765 650
Montserratan 825 440 380
Puerto Rican 2,340 1,165 1,170
St. Lucian 6,645 2,705 3,940
Trinidadian/Tobagonian 68,225 32,660 35,565
Vincentian/Grenadinian 14,180 6,140 8,045
West Indian, n.o.s. 56,650 25,815 30,830
Caribbean origins, n.i.e.Footnote 52 21,960 10,025 11,935
Latin, Central and South American origins 544,375 264,635 279,740
Aboriginal from Central/South America (except Maya) 16,685 7,875 8,810
Argentinian 16,905 8,370 8,535
Belizean 1,130 530 600
Bolivian 3,780 1,795 1,985
Brazilian 25,395 12,520 12,875
Chilean 38,135 18,830 19,305
Colombian 76,580 37,050 39,530
Costa Rican 5,340 2,560 2,780
Ecuadorian 20,120 9,640 10,475
Guatemalan 20,770 10,555 10,210
Guyanese 75,345 35,065 40,280
Hispanic 6,500 3,025 3,475
Honduran 8,725 4,215 4,515
Maya 4,695 2,420 2,270
Mexican 96,060 47,900 48,155
Nicaraguan 11,450 5,570 5,880
Panamanian 3,650 1,675 1,980
Paraguayan 3,425 1,775 1,650
Peruvian 34,380 15,855 18,530
Salvadorean 63,970 32,160 31,805
Uruguayan 5,495 2,765 2,735
Venezuelan 18,165 8,520 9,640
Latin, Central and South American origins, n.i.e.Footnote 53 19,985 9,945 10,040
African origins 766,740 387,355 379,380
Central and West African origins 142,775 73,685 69,100
Akan 1,065 600 470
Angolan 1,925 950 980
Ashanti 980 505 475
Beninese 2,665 1,455 1,205
Burkinabe 1,375 705 670
Cameroonian 10,555 5,530 5,025
Chadian 1,070 555 510
Congolese 24,965 11,975 12,995
Gabonese 1,100 555 540
Gambian 595 335 260
Ghanaian 29,350 14,965 14,390
Guinean 4,830 2,455 2,380
Ibo 2,795 1,475 1,320
Ivorian 5,200 2,865 2,335
Liberian 1,695 940 750
Malian 2,530 1,205 1,325
Nigerian 31,730 16,655 15,075
Peulh 1,370 715 655
Senegalese 6,335 3,345 2,990
Sierra Leonean 1,815 945 875
Togolese 3,110 1,780 1,335
Yoruba 5,340 2,875 2,460
Central and West African origins, n.i.e.Footnote 54 11,395 5,960 5,435
North African origins 252,050 132,630 119,420
Algerian 49,115 25,700 23,415
Berber 25,885 14,270 11,615
Coptic 3,565 1,790 1,775
Dinka 715 450 260
Egyptian 73,250 38,210 35,045
Libyan 5,515 2,965 2,550
Maure 1,035 610 430
Moroccan 71,910 36,640 35,270
Sudanese 16,595 8,790 7,805
Tunisian 15,130 8,755 6,375
North African origins, n.i.e.Footnote 55 2,875 1,630 1,245
Southern and East African origins 187,140 91,065 96,080
Afrikaner 1,950 970 975
Amhara 1,310 720 585
Bantu, n.o.s. 1,820 945 880
Burundian 7,395 3,750 3,640
Eritrean 13,430 6,540 6,890
Ethiopian 30,810 15,140 15,670
Harari 675 265 410
Kenyan 8,060 3,820 4,235
Malagasy 2,925 1,465 1,460
Mauritian 6,695 3,015 3,680
Oromo 1,825 1,000 835
Rwandan 8,100 3,795 4,310
Seychellois 1,040 500 540
Somali 44,995 21,330 23,665
South African 34,005 16,875 17,130
Tanzanian 4,070 1,980 2,090
Tigrian 1,000 550 455
Ugandan 4,540 2,205 2,335
Zambian 1,420 700 730
Zimbabwean 6,430 3,130 3,300
Zulu 840 470 370
Southern and East African origins, n.i.e.Footnote 56 14,510 7,200 7,315
Other African origins 199,905 97,980 101,920
Black, n.o.s.Footnote 57 25,150 11,595 13,555
Other African origins, n.i.e.Footnote 58 177,195 87,605 89,590
Asian origins 5,011,225 2,435,540 2,575,685
West Central Asian and Middle Eastern origins 778,470 402,825 375,645
Afghan 62,810 31,640 31,175
Arab, n.o.s. 94,640 52,240 42,405
Armenian 55,740 28,040 27,705
Assyrian 10,810 5,630 5,175
Azerbaijani 4,580 2,450 2,130
Georgian 3,155 1,525 1,625
Iranian 163,295 83,495 79,795
Iraqi 49,680 25,245 24,435
Israeli 15,010 7,330 7,685
Jordanian 9,420 5,050 4,370
Kazakh 2,270 1,095 1,175
Kurd 11,685 6,300 5,385
Kuwaiti 2,240 1,090 1,150
Lebanese 190,270 97,840 92,435
Palestinian 31,245 16,530 14,720
Pashtun 3,310 1,720 1,595
Saudi Arabian 7,955 4,680 3,275
Syrian 40,840 20,575 20,260
Tajik 2,395 1,150 1,245
Tatar 2,850 1,365 1,480
Turk 55,435 28,675 26,755
Uighur 1,155 545 615
Uzbek 2,720 1,305 1,415
Yemeni 3,950 2,080 1,860
West Central Asian and Middle Eastern origins, n.i.e.Footnote 59 16,535 9,095 7,440
South Asian origins 1,615,925 812,985 802,940
Bangladeshi 34,205 17,535 16,665
Bengali 17,960 9,225 8,735
East IndianFootnote 60 1,165,145 584,245 580,900
Goan 5,125 2,435 2,690
Gujarati 5,890 2,890 3,000
Kashmiri 2,125 1,110 1,020
Nepali 9,785 5,020 4,765
Pakistani 155,310 80,435 74,870
Punjabi 76,150 39,045 37,105
Sinhalese 7,220 3,635 3,585
Sri Lankan 139,415 69,620 69,795
Tamil 48,960 24,915 24,050
South Asian origins, n.i.e.Footnote 61 53,390 26,925 26,465
East and Southeast Asian origins 2,650,000 1,236,400 1,413,600
Burmese 7,845 3,770 4,080
Cambodian (Khmer) 34,340 16,995 17,345
Chinese 1,487,580 708,980 778,600
Filipino 662,605 289,050 373,550
Hmong 835 430 400
Indonesian 18,125 8,655 9,470
Japanese 109,740 49,150 60,585
Korean 168,885 80,525 88,360
Laotian 22,090 11,070 11,020
Malaysian 14,170 6,490 7,680
Mongolian 5,350 2,605 2,750
Singaporean 2,045 1,000 1,050
Taiwanese 30,330 14,305 16,025
Thai 15,080 6,145 8,930
Tibetan 5,820 2,915 2,905
Vietnamese 220,425 107,010 113,410
East and Southeast Asian origins, n.i.e.Footnote 62 9,045 4,410 4,635
Other Asian origins 20,115 10,140 9,980
Other Asian origins, n.i.e.Footnote 63 20,115 10,140 9,975
Oceania origins 74,875 37,485 37,385
Australian 36,345 18,455 17,895
New Zealander 13,890 7,000 6,890
Pacific Islands origins 25,745 12,565 13,175
Fijian 17,815 8,730 9,085
Hawaiian 3,135 1,470 1,670
Maori 2,015 915 1,095
Polynesian, n.o.s. 860 445 420
Samoan 820 515 305
Pacific Islands origins, n.i.e.Footnote 64 1,550 700 850
Total population in private households by religionFootnote 65 32,852,325 16,163,110 16,689,210
Buddhist 366,830 168,470 198,365
Christian 22,102,750 10,497,770 11,604,975
Anglican 1,631,845 752,945 878,900
Baptist 635,840 293,905 341,935
Catholic 12,810,710 6,167,290 6,643,415
Christian Orthodox 550,685 270,210 280,480
Lutheran 478,185 221,525 256,660
Pentecostal 478,705 217,850 260,855
Presbyterian 472,385 218,955 253,430
United Church 2,007,615 912,550 1,095,065
Other Christian 3,036,780 1,442,550 1,594,230
Hindu 497,965 250,430 247,530
Jewish 329,495 161,260 168,235
Muslim 1,053,945 540,555 513,390
Sikh 454,965 229,435 225,530
Traditional (Aboriginal) Spirituality 64,935 31,805 33,135
Other religions 130,830 57,745 73,085
No religious affiliation 7,850,610 4,225,640 3,624,965
Total population in private households by Aboriginal identity 32,852,325 16,163,110 16,689,210
Aboriginal identityFootnote 66 1,400,690 682,190 718,500
First Nations (North American Indian) single identityFootnote 67 851,560 411,785 439,775
Métis single identity 451,790 223,335 228,460
Inuk (Inuit) single identity 59,440 29,490 29,950
Multiple Aboriginal identitiesFootnote 68 11,415 5,525 5,890
Aboriginal identities not included elsewhereFootnote 69 26,475 12,055 14,420
Non-Aboriginal identity 31,451,640 15,480,925 15,970,710
Total population in private households by Registered or Treaty Indian statusFootnote 70 32,852,320 16,163,115 16,689,205
Registered or Treaty IndianFootnote 71 697,505 337,410 360,095
Not a Registered or Treaty Indian 32,154,815 15,825,705 16,329,115
Total population in private households by Aboriginal ancestryFootnote 72 32,852,325 16,163,115 16,689,210
Aboriginal ancestryFootnote 73 1,836,035 885,675 950,360
First Nations (North American Indian) Aboriginal ancestryFootnote 74 1,369,120 658,055 711,060
Métis ancestry 447,650 217,405 230,250
Inuit ancestry 72,615 35,895 36,720
Non-Aboriginal ancestry onlyFootnote 75 31,016,290 15,277,445 15,738,845
Total population in private households by non-official languages spokenFootnote 76 8,165,495 3,923,340 4,242,160
Aboriginal languages 245,120 119,645 125,470
Algonquin 2,400 1,130 1,270
Atikamekw 6,205 3,255 2,950
Blackfoot 4,395 2,150 2,245
Cree languagesFootnote 77 96,685 47,240 49,445
Mi'kmaq 8,935 4,295 4,635
Innu/Montagnais 11,450 5,550 5,900
Ojibway 25,160 11,985 13,175
Oji-Cree 10,180 4,985 5,195
Carrier 2,015 980 1,030
Dene 12,955 6,420 6,530
Tlicho (Dogrib) 2,390 1,160 1,220
Slavey, n.o.s. 1,815 920 900
Stoney 3,500 1,690 1,810
Inuktitut 36,950 18,450 18,495
Other Aboriginal languagesFootnote 78 23,460 10,985 12,475
Non-Aboriginal languages 7,922,265 3,804,695 4,117,565
Italian 595,600 290,895 304,705
Portuguese 266,950 131,440 135,510
Romanian 97,180 47,155 50,020
Spanish 873,395 406,290 467,105
Dutch 135,090 65,125 69,960
Flemish 5,620 2,420 3,200
German 525,485 257,855 267,630
Yiddish 23,750 11,660 12,090
Danish 18,165 9,080 9,090
Norwegian 8,895 4,265 4,630
Swedish 14,005 6,195 7,805
Afrikaans 21,870 10,890 10,985
Gaelic languages 7,190 3,470 3,725
Bosnian 14,280 7,125 7,160
Bulgarian 20,145 10,050 10,095
Croatian 63,440 31,455 31,995
Czech 26,640 12,685 13,955
Macedonian 22,130 10,645 11,485
Polish 217,730 100,480 117,255
Russian 230,755 109,660 121,090
Serbian 65,335 32,645 32,685
Serbo-Croatian 11,640 5,765 5,875
Slovak 19,025 8,840 10,185
Slovenian 12,290 5,645 6,640
Ukrainian 144,260 65,090 79,170
Latvian 6,960 3,165 3,790
Lithuanian 8,360 3,910 4,455
Greek 150,620 76,470 74,145
Armenian 36,235 17,930 18,300
Albanian 25,675 12,960 12,715
Estonian 6,780 2,825 3,955
Finnish 18,325 7,630 10,690
Hungarian 73,695 35,320 38,375
Turkish 44,080 23,435 20,645
Berber languages (Kabyle) 7,430 4,100 3,325
Oromo 14,200 7,680 6,520
Somali 37,115 16,995 20,120
Amharic 24,290 11,960 12,330
Arabic 470,965 249,480 221,485
Hebrew 70,695 36,145 34,545
Maltese 7,550 3,785 3,765
Tigrigna 11,280 5,485 5,795
Semitic languages, n.i.e. 19,975 9,865 10,115
Bengali 69,495 35,910 33,585
Gujarati 118,950 58,755 60,195
Hindi 335,420 170,945 164,470
Konkani 5,785 2,765 3,015
Marathi 9,695 4,870 4,825
Panjabi (Punjabi) 545,730 276,730 269,000
Sindhi 15,525 7,215 8,315
Sinhala (Sinhalese) 23,965 12,340 11,630
Urdu 240,740 123,925 116,815
Nepali 11,455 5,900 5,555
Kurdish 11,815 6,360 5,455
Pashto 16,510 8,755 7,760
Persian (Farsi) 196,105 99,820 96,290
Indo-Iranian languages, n.i.e. 8,615 4,395 4,220
Kannada 5,205 2,720 2,490
Malayalam 22,125 11,540 10,585
Tamil 179,465 89,375 90,090
Telugu 12,645 6,500 6,145
Japanese 74,690 33,185 41,505
Korean 149,040 70,450 78,590
Cantonese 472,510 221,165 251,350
Fukien 6,615 3,015 3,595
Hakka 5,350 2,380 2,970
Mandarin 378,610 176,365 202,245
Taiwanese 15,375 6,970 8,410
Chinese, n.o.s. 419,060 199,785 219,275
Lao 17,800 8,875 8,925
Thai 13,540 5,615 7,925
Khmer (Cambodian) 26,580 12,910 13,670
Vietnamese 192,065 91,755 100,310
Bisayan languages 19,690 7,880 11,815
Ilocano 21,880 8,465 13,415
Malay 20,715 9,865 10,850
Tagalog (Pilipino,Filipino) 491,075 200,370 290,705
Akan (Twi) 19,140 9,100 10,040
Lingala 12,185 5,710 6,475
Rundi (Kirundi) 5,860 2,875 2,985
Rwanda (Kinyarwanda) 5,520 2,425 3,100
Swahili 31,695 15,790 15,905
Bantu languages, n.i.e. 13,470 6,675 6,795
Niger-Congo languages, n.i.e. 29,240 15,065 14,180
African languages, n.i.e. 14,140 7,660 6,480
Creoles 128,560 58,470 70,090
Other non-Aboriginal languagesFootnote 79 133,195 62,175 71,020
Total - Mobility status 1 year agoFootnote 80 32,485,215 15,975,760 16,509,460
Non-movers 28,443,530 13,983,135 14,460,390
Movers 4,041,690 1,992,620 2,049,070
Non-migrants 2,380,365 1,173,160 1,207,205
Migrants 1,661,320 819,455 841,860
Internal migrants 1,359,105 670,370 688,735
Intraprovincial migrants 1,116,785 548,335 568,450
Interprovincial migrants 242,320 122,040 120,290
External migrants 302,215 149,085 153,125
Total - Mobility status 5 years agoFootnote 81 30,978,635 15,204,695 15,773,935
Non-movers 19,010,730 9,329,115 9,681,615
Movers 11,967,900 5,875,585 6,092,320
Non-migrants 6,467,760 3,172,145 3,295,620
Migrants 5,500,140 2,703,440 2,796,700
Internal migrants 4,297,735 2,115,460 2,182,270
Intraprovincial migrants 3,442,070 1,683,045 1,759,020
Interprovincial migrants 855,670 432,420 423,250
External migrants 1,202,410 587,980 614,430
Total population aged 15 years and over by highest certificate, diploma or degreeFootnote 82 27,259,525 13,295,350 13,964,175
No certificate, diploma or degree 5,485,395 2,742,875 2,742,515
High school diploma or equivalentFootnote 83 6,968,935 3,305,420 3,663,515
Postsecondary certificate, diploma or degreeFootnote 84 14,805,190 7,247,055 7,558,140
Apprenticeship or trades certificate or diplomaFootnote 85 2,950,685 1,928,970 1,021,715
College, CEGEP or other non-university certificate or diploma 4,970,020 2,118,425 2,851,595
University certificate or diploma below bachelor levelFootnote 86 1,200,130 513,235 686,890
University certificate, diploma or degree at bachelor level or above 5,684,355 2,686,425 2,997,935
Bachelor's degree 3,634,425 1,643,075 1,991,345
University certificate, diploma or degree above bachelor levelFootnote 87 2,049,935 1,043,345 1,006,585
Total population aged 25 to 64 years by highest certificate, diploma or degreeFootnote 88 18,383,920 8,984,390 9,399,535
No certificate, diploma or degree 2,330,575 1,238,850 1,091,730
High school diploma or equivalentFootnote 89 4,270,660 2,049,350 2,221,305
Postsecondary certificate, diploma or degreeFootnote 90 11,782,685 5,696,185 6,086,495
Apprenticeship or trades certificate or diplomaFootnote 91 2,218,800 1,435,395 783,410
College, CEGEP or other non-university certificate or diploma 3,913,710 1,674,810 2,238,895
University certificate or diploma below bachelor levelFootnote 92 894,750 385,980 508,770
University certificate, diploma or degree at bachelor level or above 4,755,420 2,199,995 2,555,425
Bachelor's degree 3,032,220 1,358,970 1,673,255
University certificate, diploma or degree above bachelor levelFootnote 93 1,723,195 841,035 882,160
Total population aged 15 years and over by major field of study - Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP) 2011Footnote 94 27,259,525 13,295,355 13,964,170
No postsecondary certificate, diploma or degreeFootnote 95 12,454,335 6,048,295 6,406,035
Education 1,109,460 275,765 833,690
Visual and performing arts, and communications technologies 548,625 254,785 293,845
Humanities 821,595 326,875 494,720
Social and behavioural sciences and law 1,497,755 512,790 984,965
Business, management and public administration 3,187,570 1,188,980 1,998,590
Physical and life sciences and technologies 554,680 291,865 262,810
Mathematics, computer and information sciences 601,705 380,195 221,505
Architecture, engineering, and related technologies 3,193,975 2,929,940 264,030
Agriculture, natural resources and conservation 326,230 220,385 105,840
Health and related fieldsFootnote 96 2,060,605 393,040 1,667,565
Personal, protective and transportation services 900,005 471,705 428,300
Other fields of studyFootnote 97 2,995 725 2,270
Total population aged 15 years and over by location of study compared with province or territory of residenceFootnote 98 27,259,525 13,295,350 13,964,175
No postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree 12,454,335 6,048,300 6,406,035
With postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree 14,805,195 7,247,055 7,558,140
Location of study inside Canada 12,404,670 6,034,100 6,370,575
Same as province or territory of residence 10,920,860 5,283,600 5,637,260
Another province or territory 1,483,815 750,500 733,310
Location of study outside Canada 2,400,520 1,212,955 1,187,565
Total population aged 15 years and over by language used most often at workFootnote 99 19,133,305 9,920,580 9,212,730
Single responses 18,705,450 9,703,220 9,002,230
English 14,622,905 7,610,355 7,012,555
French 3,831,535 1,963,650 1,867,885
Non-official languages 251,015 129,225 121,795
Chinese, n.o.s. 45,460 24,070 21,395
Cantonese 36,840 18,540 18,300
Panjabi (Punjabi) 25,045 13,505 11,545
Mandarin 22,485 12,060 10,430
Spanish 12,875 6,640 6,240
Korean 11,520 6,070 5,455
German 10,870 6,085 4,780
Cree languagesFootnote 100 7,945 4,105 3,845
Portuguese 7,850 4,925 2,925
Inuktitut 7,270 3,535 3,740
Other languages 62,840 29,690 33,150
Multiple responses 427,855 217,355 210,495
English and French 317,135 162,425 154,710
English and non-official language 94,095 46,725 47,375
French and non-official language 5,175 2,420 2,755
English, French and non-official language 11,440 5,785 5,655
Total population aged 15 years and over by language used most often at workFootnote 101 19,133,310 9,920,580 9,212,725
English 14,622,900 7,610,350 7,012,550
French 3,831,530 1,963,650 1,867,885
Non-official language 251,015 129,225 121,795
Aboriginal 23,825 11,990 11,835
Non-Aboriginal 227,190 117,230 109,960
English and French 317,135 162,430 154,710
English and non-official language 94,095 46,725 47,370
French and non-official language 5,180 2,420 2,755
English, French and non-official language 11,445 5,785 5,655
Total population aged 15 years and over by labour force statusFootnote 102 27,259,525 13,295,350 13,964,170
In the labour force 17,990,080 9,388,570 8,601,515
Employed 16,595,035 8,634,310 7,960,725
Unemployed 1,395,050 754,260 640,790
Not in the labour force 9,269,440 3,906,785 5,362,660
Participation rate 66.0 70.6 61.6
Employment rate 60.9 64.9 57.0
Unemployment rate 7.8 8.0 7.4
Total labour force aged 15 years and over by class of workerFootnote 103 17,990,080 9,388,565 8,601,510
Class of worker - not applicableFootnote 104 402,465 197,390 205,075
All classes of workerFootnote 105 17,587,615 9,191,175 8,396,435
Employee 15,660,625 7,957,490 7,703,130
Self-employedFootnote 106 1,926,990 1,233,685 693,310
Total labour force population aged 15 years and over by occupation - National Occupational Classification (NOC) 2011Footnote 107 17,990,080 9,388,565 8,601,510
Occupation - not applicableFootnote 108 402,465 197,390 205,075
All occupationsFootnote 109 17,587,615 9,191,175 8,396,440
0 Management occupations 1,963,600 1,229,460 734,140
1 Business, finance and administration occupations 2,902,045 854,195 2,047,855
2 Natural and applied sciences and related occupations 1,237,770 966,355 271,415
3 Health occupations 1,107,200 217,520 889,675
4 Occupations in education, law and social, community and government services 2,064,675 676,550 1,388,125
5 Occupations in art, culture, recreation and sport 503,410 232,535 270,875
6 Sales and service occupations 4,068,170 1,745,705 2,322,465
7 Trades, transport and equipment operators and related occupations 2,537,775 2,385,615 152,165
8 Natural resources, agriculture and related production occupations 397,930 318,945 78,980
9 Occupations in manufacturing and utilities 805,040 564,300 240,740
Total labour force population aged 15 years and over by industry - North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) 2007Footnote 110 17,990,080 9,388,570 8,601,515
Industry - not applicableFootnote 111 402,465 197,395 205,075
All industriesFootnote 112 17,587,615 9,191,175 8,396,440
11 Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting 437,650 307,365 130,285
21 Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction 261,050 211,690 49,355
22 Utilities 149,940 110,765 39,175
23 Construction 1,215,375 1,068,710 146,670
31-33 Manufacturing 1,619,290 1,167,680 451,610
41 Wholesale trade 733,445 494,545 238,900
44-45 Retail trade 2,031,670 933,850 1,097,820
48-49 Transportation and warehousing 827,780 617,300 210,475
51 Information and cultural industries 420,830 235,875 184,955
52 Finance and insurance 767,960 296,995 470,960
53 Real estate and rental and leasing 321,895 179,090 142,810
54 Professional, scientific and technical services 1,240,850 688,625 552,225
55 Management of companies and enterprises 17,460 9,380 8,075
56 Administrative and support, waste management and remediation services 728,330 411,250 317,085
61 Educational services 1,301,435 424,915 876,515
62 Health care and social assistance 1,949,645 349,430 1,600,220
71 Arts, entertainment and recreation 363,405 188,270 175,135
72 Accommodation and food services 1,130,755 469,995 660,760
81 Other services (except public administration) 807,800 372,935 434,865
91 Public administration 1,261,050 652,510 608,540
Total labour force aged 15 years and over by work activity in 2010Footnote 113 17,990,080 9,388,565 8,601,515
Did not work in 2010Footnote 114 931,000 448,820 482,180
Worked in 2010 17,059,085 8,939,750 8,119,330
1 to 13 weeks 866,690 412,100 454,590
14 to 26 weeks 1,412,115 708,950 703,165
27 to 39 weeks 1,096,050 574,025 522,025
40 to 48 weeks 2,744,755 1,415,125 1,329,625
49 to 52 weeks 10,939,470 5,829,550 5,109,920
Average weeks worked in 2010 44.5 44.9 44.2
Total labour force population aged 15 years and over by full-time or part-time weeks worked in 2010Footnote 115 17,990,080 9,388,570 8,601,510
Did not work in 2010Footnote 116 931,000 448,820 482,180
Worked in 2010 17,059,080 8,939,750 8,119,330
Worked full-time in 2010 13,672,295 7,738,995 5,933,300
Worked part-time in 2010 3,386,790 1,200,760 2,186,030
Total employed population aged 15 years and over by place of work statusFootnote 117 16,595,030 8,634,310 7,960,725
Worked at home 1,142,640 582,150 560,490
Worked outside Canada 66,455 47,355 19,100
No fixed workplace address 1,868,245 1,400,485 467,760
Worked at usual place 13,517,690 6,604,325 6,913,370
Total employed population aged 15 years and over with a usual place of work or no fixed workplace address by mode of transportationFootnote 118 15,385,940 8,004,810 7,381,130
Car, truck or van - as a driver 11,393,145 6,238,840 5,154,305
Car, truck or van - as a passenger 867,050 349,535 517,520
Public transit 1,851,525 788,290 1,063,235
Walked 880,810 387,585 493,230
Bicycle 201,780 135,840 65,940
Other methods 191,625 104,720 86,905
Total employed population aged 15 years and over with a usual place of work or no fixed workplace address by median commuting durationFootnote 119 15,385,935 8,004,810 7,381,130
Median commuting duration 20.5 20.7 20.2
Total employed population aged 15 years and over by time leaving for workFootnote 120 15,385,935 8,004,810 7,381,130
Between 5 and 6:59 a.m. 3,763,240 2,494,975 1,268,265
Between 7 and 9:00 a.m. 8,589,130 3,994,550 4,594,580
Anytime after 9:00 a.m. 3,033,565 1,515,285 1,518,285
Total number of occupied private dwellings by condition of dwellingFootnote 121 13,319,250 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Only regular maintenance or minor repairs needed 12,337,050 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Major repairs needed 982,200 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Total number of occupied private dwellings by period of constructionFootnote 122 13,319,250 not applicable ... not applicable ...
1960 or before 3,273,105 not applicable ... not applicable ...
1961 to 1980 4,152,710 not applicable ... not applicable ...
1981 to 1990 2,112,110 not applicable ... not applicable ...
1991 to 2000 1,707,880 not applicable ... not applicable ...
2001 to 2005 1,031,020 not applicable ... not applicable ...
2006 to 2011Footnote 123 1,042,430 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Total number of occupied private dwellings by number of roomsFootnote 124 13,319,255 not applicable ... not applicable ...
1 to 4 rooms 3,629,460 not applicable ... not applicable ...
5 rooms 2,074,860 not applicable ... not applicable ...
6 rooms 1,908,835 not applicable ... not applicable ...
7 rooms 1,726,740 not applicable ... not applicable ...
8 or more rooms 3,979,355 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average number of rooms per dwelling 6.3 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Total number of occupied private dwellings by number of bedroomsFootnote 125 13,319,250 not applicable ... not applicable ...
0 to 1 bedroom 1,948,215 not applicable ... not applicable ...
2 bedrooms 3,334,910 not applicable ... not applicable ...
3 bedrooms 4,740,660 not applicable ... not applicable ...
4 or more bedrooms 3,295,465 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Total number of private households by tenureFootnote 126 13,319,255 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Owner 9,185,845 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Renter 4,078,225 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Band housing 55,180 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Total number of private households by condominium statusFootnote 127 13,319,250 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Part of a condominium development 1,615,485 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Not part of a condominium development 11,703,765 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Total number of private households by number of household maintainersFootnote 128 13,319,250 not applicable ... not applicable ...
1 household maintainer 7,981,845 not applicable ... not applicable ...
2 household maintainers 5,059,395 not applicable ... not applicable ...
3 or more household maintainers 278,010 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Total number of private households by age group of primary household maintainersFootnote 129 13,319,250 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Under 25 years 458,915 not applicable ... not applicable ...
25 to 34 years 1,912,820 not applicable ... not applicable ...
35 to 44 years 2,388,765 not applicable ... not applicable ...
45 to 54 years 3,023,350 not applicable ... not applicable ...
55 to 64 years 2,560,685 not applicable ... not applicable ...
65 to 74 years 1,620,075 not applicable ... not applicable ...
75 years and over 1,354,635 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Total number of private households by number of persons per roomFootnote 130 13,319,250 not applicable ... not applicable ...
One person or fewer per room 13,049,830 not applicable ... not applicable ...
More than one person per room 269,425 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Total number of private households by housing suitabilityFootnote 131 13,319,255 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Suitable 12,525,660 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Not suitable 793,590 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Total number of owner and tenant households with household total income greater than zero, in non-farm, non-reserve private dwellings by shelter-cost-to-income ratioFootnote 132 13,049,250 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Spending less than 30% of household total income on shelter costs 9,763,275 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Spending 30% or more of household total income on shelter costs 3,285,980 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Spending 30% to less than 100% of household total income on shelter costs 2,699,045 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Number of owner households in non-farm, non-reserve private dwellings 9,013,405 not applicable ... not applicable ...
% of owner households with a mortgageFootnote 133 58.6 not applicable ... not applicable ...
% of owner households spending 30% or more of household total income on shelter costsFootnote 134 18.5 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Median monthly shelter costs for owned dwellings ($)Footnote 135 978 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average monthly shelter costs for owned dwellings ($)Footnote 136 1,141 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Median value of dwellings ($)Footnote 137 280,552 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average value of dwellings ($)Footnote 138 345,182 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Number of tenant households in non-farm, non-reserve private dwellings 4,060,385 not applicable ... not applicable ...
% of tenant households in subsidized housingFootnote 139 13.7 not applicable ... not applicable ...
% of tenant households spending 30% or more of household total income on shelter costsFootnote 140 40.1 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Median monthly shelter costs for rented dwellings ($)Footnote 141 784 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average monthly shelter costs for rented dwellings ($)Footnote 142 848 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Total income in 2010 of population aged 15 years and overFootnote 143 27,259,525 13,295,350 13,964,175
Without income 1,341,020 580,700 760,320
With income 25,918,510 12,714,655 13,203,855
Under $5,000Footnote 144 2,574,075 1,235,710 1,338,365
$5,000 to $9,999 1,917,965 700,655 1,217,305
$10,000 to $14,999 2,393,835 911,395 1,482,445
$15,000 to $19,999 2,441,875 953,490 1,488,385
$20,000 to $29,999 3,670,020 1,588,260 2,081,760
$30,000 to $39,999 3,180,365 1,522,190 1,658,170
$40,000 to $49,999 2,603,520 1,333,510 1,270,010
$50,000 to $59,999 1,921,650 1,079,780 841,870
$60,000 to $79,999 2,437,440 1,473,140 964,300
$80,000 to $99,999 1,302,045 823,715 478,330
$100,000 and over 1,475,715 1,092,810 382,910
$100,000 to $124,999 693,580 492,900 200,680
$125,000 and over 782,135 599,905 182,230
Median income $Footnote 145 29,878 36,211 24,606
Average income $Footnote 146 40,650 48,594 33,000
After-tax income in 2010 of population 15 years and overFootnote 147 27,259,520 13,295,350 13,964,175
Without after-tax income 1,344,645 580,755 763,885
With after-tax income 25,914,880 12,714,595 13,200,285
Under $5,000Footnote 148 2,628,610 1,249,795 1,378,820
$5,000 to $9,999 1,960,365 707,590 1,252,765
$10,000 to $14,999 2,453,170 938,990 1,514,180
$15,000 to $19,999 2,654,475 1,050,270 1,604,205
$20,000 to $29,999 4,341,540 1,936,655 2,404,880
$30,000 to $39,999 3,790,600 1,884,995 1,905,605
$40,000 to $49,999 2,816,630 1,542,605 1,274,020
$50,000 to $59,999 1,849,630 1,099,285 750,350
$60,000 to $79,999 2,028,080 1,277,335 750,740
$80,000 to $99,999 709,185 502,455 206,730
$100,000 and over 682,605 524,620 157,990
Median after-tax income $Footnote 149 27,334 32,434 23,080
Average after-tax income $Footnote 150 33,998 39,716 28,490
Composition of total income in 2010 of population 15 years and over %Footnote 151 100.0 100.0 100.0
Market income %Footnote 152 87.6 90.8 83.1
Employment income %Footnote 153 74.7 77.7 70.4
Wages and salaries %Footnote 154 70.3 72.6 66.9
Self-employment income %Footnote 155 4.4 5.0 3.5
Investment income %Footnote 156 4.6 4.5 4.8
Retirement pensions, superannuation and annuities %Footnote 157 6.7 7.1 6.1
Other money income %Footnote 158 1.7 1.5 1.8
Government transfer payments %Footnote 159 12.4 9.2 16.9
Canada/Quebec Pension Plan benefits %Footnote 160 3.5 3.0 4.1
Old Age Security pensions and Guaranteed Income Supplement %Footnote 161 3.1 2.2 4.3
Employment Insurance benefits %Footnote 162 1.8 1.5 2.1
Child benefits %Footnote 163 1.5 0.1 3.5
Other income from government sources %Footnote 164 2.6 2.4 2.8
Income taxes paid as a % of total incomeFootnote 165 16.4 18.3 13.7
After-tax income as a % of total incomeFootnote 166 83.6 81.7 86.3
Net capital gains or losses as a % of total incomeFootnote 167 1.9 2.1 1.6
Population aged 15 years and over who worked full year, full time and with employment income in 2010Footnote 168 9,473,485 5,318,585 4,154,900
Median employment income in 2010 $ 47,868 53,046 42,181
Average employment income in 2010 $ 58,129 65,400 48,820
Family income in 2010 of economic familiesFootnote 169 9,254,160 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Median family income $ 76,511 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average family income $ 94,125 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Median after-tax family income $ 67,044 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average after-tax family income $ 78,517 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average family size 3.0 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Couple-only economic familiesFootnote 170 3,469,545 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Median family income $ 68,340 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average family income $ 84,831 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Median after-tax family income $ 59,975 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average after-tax family income $ 70,562 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average family size 2.0 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Couple-with-children economic familiesFootnote 171 4,139,650 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Median family income $ 97,270 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average family income $ 115,282 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Median after-tax family income $ 83,801 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average after-tax family income $ 95,284 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average family size 4.0 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Lone-parent economic familiesFootnote 172 1,335,435 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Median family income $ 45,163 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average family income $ 55,519 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Median after-tax family income $ 42,401 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average after-tax family income $ 48,930 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average family size 2.6 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Income in 2010 of population aged 15 years and over not in economic familiesFootnote 173 4,903,505 2,362,280 2,541,225
Median total income $Footnote 174 28,018 31,348 25,351
Average total income $Footnote 175 37,225 40,675 34,019
Median after-tax income $Footnote 176 25,761 28,197 23,917
Average after-tax income $Footnote 177 31,497 33,751 29,401
Total population by decile of adjusted after-tax family incomeFootnote 178 32,852,320 16,163,115 16,689,210
In bottom half of the Canadian distribution 16,426,165 7,822,780 8,603,380
In bottom decile 3,285,210 1,584,875 1,700,335
In second decile 3,285,280 1,455,385 1,829,890
In third decile 3,285,180 1,558,660 1,726,520
In fourth decile 3,285,265 1,601,990 1,683,280
In fifth decile 3,285,230 1,621,875 1,663,355
In top half of the Canadian distribution 16,426,160 8,340,335 8,085,825
In sixth decile 3,285,220 1,639,565 1,645,655
In seventh decile 3,285,250 1,655,425 1,629,820
In eighth decile 3,285,235 1,668,260 1,616,970
In ninth decile 3,285,230 1,678,940 1,606,290
In top decile 3,285,230 1,698,140 1,587,090
Household total income in 2010 of private householdsFootnote 179 13,319,250 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Under $5,000 361,615 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$5,000 to $9,999 265,090 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$10,000 to $14,999 447,540 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$15,000 to $19,999 694,400 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$20,000 to $29,999 1,193,925 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$30,000 to $39,999 1,271,675 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$40,000 to $49,999 1,206,795 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$50,000 to $59,999 1,102,125 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$60,000 to $79,999 1,865,275 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$80,000 to $99,999 1,458,235 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$100,000 to $124,999 1,260,775 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$125,000 to $149,999 802,560 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$150,000 and over 1,389,240 not applicable ... not applicable ...
After-tax income of households in 2010 of private householdsFootnote 180 13,319,250 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Under $5,000 370,285 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$5,000 to $9,999 267,880 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$10,000 to $14,999 456,280 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$15,000 to $19,999 728,380 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$20,000 to $29,999 1,360,815 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$30,000 to $39,999 1,494,520 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$40,000 to $49,999 1,442,790 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$50,000 to $59,999 1,278,415 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$60,000 to $79,999 2,092,915 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$80,000 to $99,999 1,437,320 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$100,000 and over 2,389,655 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$100,000 to $124,999 1,088,180 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$125,000 and over 1,301,475 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Household income in 2010 of private householdsFootnote 181 13,319,250 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Median household total income $ 61,072 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average household total income $ 79,102 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Median after-tax household income $ 54,089 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average after-tax household income $ 66,149 not applicable ... not applicable ...
One-person private householdsFootnote 182 3,662,800 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Median household total income $ 30,534 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average household total income $ 40,054 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Median after-tax household income $ 27,733 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average after-tax household income $ 33,702 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Two-or-more-persons private householdsFootnote 183 9,656,450 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Median household total income $ 76,437 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average household total income $ 93,913 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Median after-tax household income $ 67,036 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average after-tax household income $ 78,456 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Population in private households for income statusFootnote 184 32,386,165 15,927,865 16,458,310
Less than 18 years 6,726,315 3,458,525 3,267,785
Less than 6 years 2,181,280 1,114,675 1,066,600
18 to 64 years 21,141,925 10,401,950 10,739,975
65 years and over 4,517,930 2,067,385 2,450,545
In low income in 2010 based on after-tax low-income measure (LIM-AT) 4,812,120 2,219,010 2,593,110
Less than 18 years 1,162,785 597,110 565,675
Less than 6 years 394,595 201,770 192,820
18 to 64 years 3,044,395 1,415,865 1,628,525
65 years and over 604,945 206,040 398,905
Prevalence of low income in 2010 based on after-tax low-income measure % 14.9 13.9 15.8
Less than 18 years % 17.3 17.3 17.3
Less than 6 years % 18.1 18.1 18.1
18 to 64 years % 14.4 13.6 15.2
65 years and over % 13.4 10.0 16.3

Symbol(s)

Symbol ..

not available for a specific reference period

..

Symbol ...

not applicable

...

Symbol x

suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act

x

Symbol F

too unreliable to be published

F

Footnote(s)

Footnote 1

Excludes National Household Survey data for one or more incompletely enumerated Indian reserves or Indian settlements.

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Footnote 2

For the 2011 National Household Survey (NHS) estimates, the global non-response rate (GNR) is used as an indicator of data quality. This indicator combines complete non-response (household) and partial non-response (question) into a single rate. The value of the GNR is presented to users. A smaller GNR indicates a lower risk of non-response bias and as a result, lower risk of inaccuracy. The threshold used for estimates' suppression is a GNR of 50% or more. For more information, please refer to the National Household Survey User Guide, 2011.

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Footnote 3

Citizenship refers to the legal citizenship status of a person. Citizenship can be by birth or naturalization. A person may have more than one citizenship. A person may be stateless, that is, they may have no citizenship.

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Footnote 4

Includes persons who are stateless.

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Footnote 5

Period of immigration refers to the period in which the immigrant first obtained his or her landed immigrant/permanent resident status. A landed immigrant/permanent resident refers to a person who has been granted the right to live permanently in Canada by immigration authorities.

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Footnote 6

Non-immigrant refers to a person who is a Canadian citizen by birth.

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Footnote 7

Immigrant refers to a person who is or has ever been a landed immigrant/permanent resident. This person has been granted the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities. Some immigrants have resided in Canada for a number of years, while others have arrived recently. Some immigrants are Canadian citizens, while others are not. Most immigrants are born outside Canada, but a small number are born in Canada. In the 2011 National Household Survey, 'Immigrants' includes immigrants who landed in Canada prior to May 10, 2011.

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Footnote 8

Includes immigrants who landed in Canada prior to May 10, 2011.

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Footnote 9

Includes immigrants who landed in Canada prior to May 10, 2011.

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Footnote 10

Non-permanent resident refers to a person from another country who has a work or study permit, or who is a refugee claimant, and any non-Canadian-born family member living in Canada with them.

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Footnote 11

Age at immigration refers to the age at which an immigrant first obtained landed immigrant/permanent resident status. Immigrant refers to a person who is or has ever been a landed immigrant/permanent resident. This person has been granted the right to live permanently in Canada by immigration authorities.

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Footnote 12

The places of birth selected are the most frequently reported by immigrants at the Canada level.

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Footnote 13

Non-immigrant refers to a person who is a Canadian citizen by birth.

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Footnote 14

Immigrant refers to a person who is or has ever been a landed immigrant/permanent resident. This person has been granted the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities. Some immigrants have resided in Canada for a number of years, while others have arrived recently. Some immigrants are Canadian citizens, while others are not. Most immigrants are born outside Canada, but a small number are born in Canada. In the 2011 National Household Survey, 'Immigrants' includes immigrants who landed in Canada prior to May 10, 2011.

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Footnote 15

The official name of United Kingdom is United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. United Kingdom includes Scotland, Wales, England and Northern Ireland (excludes Isle of Man, the Channel Islands and British Overseas Territories).

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Footnote 16

China excludes Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and Macao Special Administrative Region.

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Footnote 17

The official name of Viet Nam is Socialist Republic of Viet Nam.

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Footnote 18

The official name of Iran is Islamic Republic of Iran.

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Footnote 19

The official name of South Korea is Republic of Korea.

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Footnote 20

The category 'Oceania and other' includes places of birth in Oceania and responses not included elsewhere, such as 'born at sea.'

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Footnote 21

The category 'Other places of birth' includes other places of birth in Oceania and responses not included elsewhere, such as 'born at sea.'

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Footnote 22

Non-permanent resident refers to a person from another country who has a work or study permit, or who is a refugee claimant, and any non-Canadian-born family member living in Canada with them.

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Footnote 23

Recent immigrants are immigrants who landed in Canada between January 1, 2006 and May 10, 2011.

Immigrant refers to a person who is or has ever been a landed immigrant/permanent resident. This person has been granted the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities. Some immigrants have resided in Canada for a number of years, while others have arrived recently. Some immigrants are Canadian citizens, while others are not. Most immigrants are born outside Canada, but a small number are born in Canada.

The places of birth selected are the most frequently reported by recent immigrants at the Canada level.

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Footnote 24

The official name of Venezuela is Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela.

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Footnote 25

The official name of Moldova is Republic of Moldova.

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Footnote 26

The official name of United Kingdom is United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. United Kingdom includes Scotland, Wales, England and Northern Ireland (excludes Isle of Man, the Channel Islands and British Overseas Territories).

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Footnote 27

China excludes Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and Macao Special Administrative Region.

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Footnote 28

The official name of Iran is Islamic Republic of Iran.

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Footnote 29

The official name of South Korea is Republic of Korea.

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Footnote 30

The official name of Viet Nam is Socialist Republic of Viet Nam.

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Footnote 31

The official name of Syria is Syrian Arab Republic.

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Footnote 32

The category 'Oceania and other' includes places of birth in Oceania and responses not included elsewhere, such as 'born at sea.'

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Footnote 33

Generation status refers to whether or not the person or the person's parents were born in Canada. It identifies persons as being first generation, second generation or third generation or more.

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Footnote 34

'First generation' includes persons who were born outside Canada. For the most part, these are people who are now, or have ever been, immigrants to Canada.

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Footnote 35

'Second generation' includes persons who were born in Canada and had at least one parent born outside Canada. For the most part, these are the children of immigrants.

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Footnote 36

'Third generation or more' includes persons who were born in Canada with both parents born in Canada.

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Footnote 37

The Employment Equity Act defines visible minorities as 'persons, other than Aboriginal peoples, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in colour.'

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Footnote 38

For example, 'East Indian,' 'Pakistani,' 'Sri Lankan,' etc.

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Footnote 39

For example, 'Vietnamese,' 'Cambodian,' 'Malaysian,' 'Laotian,' etc.

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Footnote 40

For example, 'Iranian,' 'Afghan,' etc.

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Footnote 41

The abbreviation 'n.i.e.' means 'not included elsewhere.' Includes respondents who reported a write-in response such as 'Guyanese,' 'West Indian,' 'Tibetan,' 'Polynesian,' 'Pacific Islander,' etc.

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Footnote 42

Includes respondents who reported more than one visible minority group by checking two or more mark-in circles, e.g., 'Black' and 'South Asian.'

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Footnote 43

Includes respondents who reported 'Yes' to the Aboriginal identity question (Question 18) as well as respondents who were not considered to be members of a visible minority group.

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Footnote 44

This is a total population estimate. The sum of the ethnic groups in this table is greater than the total population estimate because a person may report more than one ethnic origin in the NHS.

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Footnote 45

Includes general responses indicating North American origins (e.g., 'North American') as well as more specific responses indicating North American origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Maritimer,' 'Manitoban').

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Footnote 46

Includes general responses indicating British Isles origins (e.g., 'British,' 'United Kingdom') as well as more specific responses indicating British Isles origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Celtic').

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Footnote 47

Includes general responses indicating Western European origins (e.g., 'Western European') as well as more specific responses indicating Western European origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Liechtensteiner').

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Footnote 48

Includes general responses indicating Northern European origins (e.g., 'Northern European') as well as more specific responses indicating Northern European origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Faroese,' 'Scandinavian').

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Footnote 49

Includes general responses indicating Eastern European origins (e.g., 'Eastern European') as well as more specific responses indicating Eastern European origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Baltic').

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Footnote 50

Includes general responses indicating Southern European origins (e.g., 'Southern European') as well as more specific responses indicating Southern European origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Gibraltarian').

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Footnote 51

Includes general responses indicating Other European origins (e.g., 'European') as well as more specific responses indicating European origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Central European').

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Footnote 52

Includes general responses indicating Caribbean origins (e.g., 'Caribbean') as well as more specific responses indicating Caribbean origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Guadelupian,' 'Aruban').

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Footnote 53

Includes general responses indicating Latin, Central or South American origins (e.g., 'South American') as well as more specific responses indicating Latin, Central or South American origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Surinamese').

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Footnote 54

Includes general responses indicating Central or West African origins (e.g., 'West African') as well as more specific responses indicating Central or West African origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Ewe,' 'Wolof').

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Footnote 55

Includes general responses indicating North African origins (e.g., 'North African') as well as more specific responses indicating North African origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Maghreb').

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Footnote 56

Includes general responses indicating Southern or East African origins (e.g., 'East African') as well as more specific responses indicating Southern or East African origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Hutu,' 'Shona').

Return to footnote 56 referrer

Footnote 57

Some respondents may choose to provide very specific ethnic origins in the National Household Survey (NHS), while other respondents may choose to give more general responses. This means that two respondents with the same ethnic ancestry could have different response patterns and thus could be counted as having different ethnic origins. For example, one respondent may report 'East Indian' ethnic origin while another respondent, with a similar ancestral background, may report 'Punjabi' or 'South Asian' origins; one respondent may report 'Black' while another, similar respondent, may report 'Ghanaian' or 'African.' As a result, ethnic origin data are very fluid, and counts for certain origins, such as 'East Indian' and 'Black,' may seem lower than initially expected. Users who wish to obtain broader response counts may wish to combine data for one or more ethnic origins together or use counts for ethnic categories such as 'South Asian origins' or 'African origins.' (Please note, however, that 'African origins' should not be considered equivalent to the 'Black' population group or visible minority status, as there are persons reporting African origins who report a population group or visible minority status other than 'Black.' Conversely, many people report a population group or visible minority status of 'Black' and do not report having 'African' origins. For information on population group and visible minority population in the 2011 NHS, refer to the appropriate definitions in this publication.)

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Footnote 58

Includes general responses indicating Other African origins (e.g., 'African') as well as more specific responses indicating Other African origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Saharan').

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Footnote 59

Includes general responses indicating West Asian, Central Asian and Middle Eastern origins (e.g., 'West Asian,' 'Middle Eastern') as well as more specific responses indicating West Asian, Central Asian and Middle Eastern origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Baloch,' 'Circassian').

Return to footnote 59 referrer

Footnote 60

Some respondents may choose to provide very specific ethnic origins in the National Household Survey (NHS), while other respondents may choose to give more general responses. This means that two respondents with the same ethnic ancestry could have different response patterns and thus could be counted as having different ethnic origins. For example, one respondent may report 'East Indian' ethnic origin while another respondent, with a similar ancestral background, may report 'Punjabi' or 'South Asian' origins; one respondent may report 'Black' while another, similar respondent, may report 'Ghanaian' or 'African.' As a result, ethnic origin data are very fluid, and counts for certain origins, such as 'East Indian' and 'Black,' may seem lower than initially expected. Users who wish to obtain broader response counts may wish to combine data for one or more ethnic origins together or use counts for ethnic categories such as 'South Asian origins' or 'African origins.' (Please note, however, that 'African origins' should not be considered equivalent to the 'Black' population group or visible minority status, as there are persons reporting African origins who report a population group or visible minority status other than 'Black.' Conversely, many people report a population group or visible minority status of 'Black' and do not report having 'African' origins. For information on population group and visible minority population in the 2011 NHS, refer to the appropriate definitions in this publication.)

Return to footnote 60 referrer

Footnote 61

Includes general responses indicating South Asian origins (e.g., 'South Asian') as well as more specific responses indicating South Asian origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Bhutanese').

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Footnote 62

Includes general responses indicating East and Southeast Asian origins (e.g., 'Southeast Asian') as well as more specific responses indicating East and Southeast Asian origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Bruneian,' 'Karen').

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Footnote 63

Includes general responses indicating Other Asian origins (e.g., 'Asian') as well as more specific responses indicating Other Asian origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Eurasian').

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Footnote 64

Includes general responses indicating Pacific Islands origins (e.g., 'Pacific Islander') as well as more specific responses indicating Pacific Islands origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Tahitian').

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Footnote 65

Religion refers to the person's self-identification as having a connection or affiliation with any religious denomination, group, body, sect, cult or other religiously defined community or system of belief. Religion is not limited to formal membership in a religious organization or group. Persons without a religious connection or affiliation can self-identify as atheist, agnostic or humanist, or can provide another applicable response.

Return to footnote 65 referrer

Footnote 66

'Aboriginal identity' includes persons who reported being an Aboriginal person, that is, First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuk (Inuit) and/or those who reported Registered or Treaty Indian status, that is registered under the Indian Act of Canada, and/or those who reported membership in a First Nation or Indian band. Aboriginal peoples of Canada are defined in the Constitution Act, 1982, section 35 (2) as including the Indian, Inuit and Métis peoples of Canada.

Return to footnote 66 referrer

Footnote 67

Users should be aware that the estimates associated with this variable are more affected than most by the incomplete enumeration of certain Indian reserves and Indian settlements in the National Household Survey (NHS). In 2011, there were a total of 36 Indian reserves and Indian settlements that were 'incompletely enumerated' in the NHS. For these reserves or settlements, NHS enumeration was either not permitted or was interrupted before it could be completed, or was not possible because of natural events (specifically forest fires in Northern Ontario). For additional information, please refer to the Aboriginal Peoples Reference Guide, National Household Survey (NHS), 2011.

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Footnote 68

'Multiple Aboriginal identities' includes persons who reported being any two or all three of the following: First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuk (Inuit).

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Footnote 69

'Aboriginal identities not included elsewhere' includes persons who did not report being First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuk (Inuit) but who did report Registered or Treaty Indian status and/or membership in a First Nation or Indian band.

Return to footnote 69 referrer

Footnote 70

Users should be aware that the estimates associated with this variable are more affected than most by the incomplete enumeration of certain Indian reserves and Indian settlements in the National Household Survey (NHS). In 2011, there were a total of 36 Indian reserves and Indian settlements that were 'incompletely enumerated' in the NHS. For these reserves or settlements, NHS enumeration was either not permitted or was interrupted before it could be completed, or was not possible because of natural events (specifically forest fires in Northern Ontario). For additional information, please refer to the Aboriginal Peoples Reference Guide, National Household Survey (NHS), 2011.

Return to footnote 70 referrer

Footnote 71

Registered or Treaty Indian status refers to whether or not a person reported being a Registered or Treaty Indian.
'Registered or Treaty Indian' includes persons who reported being a Registered or Treaty Indian in Question 20. Registered Indians are persons who are registered under the Indian Act of Canada. Treaty Indians are persons who belong to a First Nation or Indian band that signed a treaty with the Crown. Registered or Treaty Indians are sometimes also called Status Indians.

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Footnote 72

This is a total population estimate. The sum of the ancestries in this table is greater than the total population estimate because a person may report more than one ancestry (ethnic origin) in the NHS.

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Footnote 73

'Aboriginal ancestry' includes persons who reported one or more than one of First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuit ancestry in Question 17, either with or without also reporting a non-Aboriginal ancestry. The sum of the categories 'First Nations (North American Indian) ancestry', 'Métis ancestry' and 'Inuit ancestry' is thus greater than the sum of the total for 'Aboriginal ancestry' because persons who reported more than one Aboriginal ancestry are included in the response category for each Aboriginal ancestry they reported. All respondents with Aboriginal ancestry are counted in at least one of the categories 'First Nations (North American Indian) ancestry,' 'Métis ancestry' and 'Inuit ancestry' and also in the category 'Aboriginal ancestry.'

Aboriginal peoples of Canada are defined in the Constitution Act, 1982, section 35 (2) as including the Indian, Inuit and Métis peoples of Canada. Ancestry refers to the ethnic or cultural origins of the respondent's ancestors, an ancestor being usually more distant than a grandparent. A person can have more than one ethnic or cultural origin.

Return to footnote 73 referrer

Footnote 74

Users should be aware that the estimates associated with this variable are more affected than most by the incomplete enumeration of certain Indian reserves and Indian settlements in the National Household Survey (NHS). In 2011, there were a total of 36 Indian reserves and Indian settlements that were 'incompletely enumerated' in the NHS. For these reserves or settlements, NHS enumeration was either not permitted or was interrupted before it could be completed, or was not possible because of natural events (specifically forest fires in Northern Ontario). For additional information, please refer to the Aboriginal Peoples Reference Guide, National Household Survey (NHS), 2011.

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Footnote 75

'Non-Aboriginal ancestry only' includes persons who did not report First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuit ancestry in Question 17.

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Footnote 76

Refers to languages, other than English or French, in which the respondent can conduct a conversation. The category 'Non-official languages spoken' represents the sum of single language responses and multiple language responses received in the NHS. Hence, this total is greater than the total population.

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Footnote 77

Cree languages include the following categories: Cree not otherwise specified (which refers to those who reported 'Cree'), Swampy Cree, Plains Cree, Woods Cree, and a category labelled 'Cree not included elsewhere' (which includes Moose Cree, Northern East Cree and Southern East Cree).

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Footnote 78

This is a subtotal of all Aboriginal languages collected on May 10, 2011 that are not displayed separately here.

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Footnote 79

This is a subtotal of all non-Aboriginal languages, other than English or French, collected on May 10, 2011 that are not displayed separately here.

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Footnote 80

Refers to the status of a person with regard to the place of residence on the reference day, May 10, 2011, in relation to the place of residence on the same date one year earlier. Persons who have not moved are referred to as non-movers and persons who have moved from one residence to another are referred to as movers. Movers include non-migrants and migrants. Non-migrants are persons who did move but remained in the same city, town, township, village or Indian reserve. Migrants include internal migrants who moved to a different city, town, township, village or Indian reserve within Canada. External migrants include persons who lived outside Canada at the earlier reference date.

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Footnote 81

Refers to the status of a person with regard to the place of residence on the reference day, May 10, 2011, in relation to the place of residence on the same date five years earlier. Persons who have not moved are referred to as non-movers and persons who have moved from one residence to another are referred to as movers. Movers include non-migrants and migrants. Non-migrants are persons who did move but remained in the same city, town, township, village or Indian reserve. Migrants include internal migrants who moved to a different city, town, township, village or Indian reserve within Canada. External migrants include persons who lived outside Canada at the earlier reference date.

Return to footnote 81 referrer

Footnote 82

'Highest certificate, diploma or degree' refers to the highest certificate, diploma or degree completed based on a hierarchy which is generally related to the amount of time spent 'in-class.' For postsecondary completers, a university education is considered to be a higher level of schooling than a college education, while a college education is considered to be a higher level of education than in the trades. Although some trades requirements may take as long or longer to complete than a given college or university program, the majority of time is spent in on-the-job paid training and less time is spent in the classroom.

For further definitions, refer to the National Household Survey Dictionary, Catalogue no. 99-000-X. For any comments on collection, dissemination or data quality for this variable, refer to the Education Reference Guide, National Household Survey, Catalogue no. 99-012-X2011006.

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Footnote 83

'High school diploma or equivalent' includes persons who have graduated from a secondary school or equivalent. It excludes persons with a postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree.

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Footnote 84

'Postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree' includes 'apprenticeship or trades certificates or diplomas,' 'college, CEGEP or other non-university certificates or diplomas' and university certificates, diplomas and degrees.

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Footnote 85

'Apprenticeship or trades certificate or diploma' includes Registered Apprenticeship certificates (including Certificate of Qualification, Journeyperson's designation) and other trades certificates or diplomas such as pre-employment or vocational certificates and diplomas from brief trade programs completed at community colleges, institutes of technology, vocational centres, and similar institutions.

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Footnote 86

Comparisons with other data sources suggest that the category 'University certificate or diploma below the bachelor's level' was over-reported in the NHS. This category likely includes some responses that are actually college certificates or diplomas, bachelor's degrees or other types of education (e.g., university transfer programs, bachelor's programs completed in other countries, incomplete bachelor's programs, non-university professional designations). We recommend users interpret the results for the 'University certificate or diploma below the bachelor's level' category with caution.

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Footnote 87

'University certificate, diploma or degree above bachelor level' includes the categories 'University certificate or diploma above bachelor level,' 'Degree in medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine or optometry,' 'Master's degree' and 'Earned doctorate.'

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Footnote 88

'Highest certificate, diploma or degree' refers to the highest certificate, diploma or degree completed based on a hierarchy which is generally related to the amount of time spent 'in-class.' For postsecondary completers, a university education is considered to be a higher level of schooling than a college education, while a college education is considered to be a higher level of education than in the trades. Although some trades requirements may take as long or longer to complete than a given college or university program, the majority of time is spent in on-the-job paid training and less time is spent in the classroom.

For further definitions, refer to the National Household Survey Dictionary, Catalogue no. 99-000-X. For any comments on collection, dissemination or data quality for this variable, refer to the Education Reference Guide, National Household Survey, Catalogue no. 99-012-X2011006.

Return to footnote 88 referrer

Footnote 89

'High school diploma or equivalent' includes persons who have graduated from a secondary school or equivalent. It excludes persons with a postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree.

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Footnote 90

'Postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree' includes 'apprenticeship or trades certificates or diplomas,' 'college, CEGEP or other non-university certificates or diplomas' and university certificates, diplomas and degrees.

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Footnote 91

(4) 'Apprenticeship or trades certificate or diploma' includes Registered Apprenticeship certificates (including Certificate of Qualification, Journeyperson's designation) and other trades certificates or diplomas such as pre-employment or vocational certificates and diplomas from brief trade programs completed at community colleges, institutes of technology, vocational centres, and similar institutions.

Return to footnote 91 referrer

Footnote 92

Comparisons with other data sources suggest that the category 'University certificate or diploma below the bachelor's level' was over-reported in the NHS. This category likely includes some responses that are actually college certificates or diplomas, bachelor's degrees or other types of education (e.g., university transfer programs, bachelor's programs completed in other countries, incomplete bachelor's programs, non-university professional designations). We recommend users interpret the results for the 'University certificate or diploma below the bachelor's level' category with caution.

Return to footnote 92 referrer

Footnote 93

'University certificate, diploma or degree above bachelor level' includes the categories 'University certificate or diploma above bachelor level,' 'Degree in medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine or optometry,' 'Master's degree' and 'Earned doctorate.'

Return to footnote 93 referrer

Footnote 94

'Major field of study' is defined as the main discipline or subject of learning. It is collected for the highest certificate, diploma or degree above the high school or secondary school level and classified according to the Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP) Canada 2011. This variable shows the 'primary groupings,' a CIP variant.



For more information on the CIP classification, see the Classification of Instructional Programs, Canada 2011, Catalogue no. 12-590-X available from: www.statcan.gc.ca/concepts/classification-eng.htm.



For any comments on collection, dissemination or data quality for this variable, refer to the Education Reference Guide, National Household Survey, Catalogue no. 99-012-X2011006.

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Footnote 95

'No postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree' includes persons who have not completed a registered apprenticeship certificate (including Certificate of Qualification, Journeyperson's designation) or other trades certificate or diploma, a college, CEGEP or other non-university certificate or diploma, or a university certificate, diploma or degree.

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Footnote 96

Called 'Health, parks, recreation and fitness' in CIP Canada 2000.

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Footnote 97

Includes 'Multidisciplinary/interdisciplinary studies, other.'

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Footnote 98

'Location of study compared with province or territory of residence' indicates whether the 'Location of study' is the same as the province or territory of residence in 2011, a different Canadian province or territory, or outside Canada. 'Location of study' refers to the province, territory or country of the institution where the highest certificate, diploma or degree above the high school level was completed.



Users should be aware that some respondents may have reported the physical location of study rather than the location of the certificate, diploma or degree-granting institution. This could affect the responses of those who obtained a certificate, diploma or degree through a joint program or by distance learning with credentials granted in another province or country. In particular, a number of persons reported a location of study for a university credential in one of the territories (Yukon, Northwest Territories, Nunavut), even though there were no educational institutions in the territories with the authority to grant university degrees.



For any other comments on collection, dissemination or data quality for this variable or 'Location of study,' refer to the Education Reference Guide, National Household Survey, Catalogue no. 99-012-X2011006.

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Footnote 99

Population by language used most often at work

Refers to the language used most often at work, as reported on May 10, 2011 by the individuals aged 15 years and over who worked since January 1, 2010.

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Footnote 100

Cree languages include the following categories: Cree not otherwise specified (which refers to those who reported 'Cree'), Swampy Cree, Plains Cree, Woods Cree, and a category labelled 'Cree not included elsewhere' (which includes Moose Cree, Northern East Cree and Southern East Cree).

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Footnote 101

Population by language used most often at work.

Refers to the language used most often at work, as reported on May 10, 2011 by the individuals aged 15 years and over who worked since January 1, 2010.

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Footnote 102

Refers to whether a person was employed, unemployed or not in the labour force during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2011.

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In the past, this variable was called Labour force activity.

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Footnote 103

Refers to whether an employed person is an employee or is self-employed. The self-employed include persons with or without a business, as well as unpaid family workers.

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Footnote 104

Includes unemployed persons aged 15 years and over who have never worked for pay or in self-employment or who had last worked prior to January 1, 2010 only.

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Footnote 105

Experienced labour force refers to persons who, during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2011, were employed and the unemployed who had last worked for pay or in self-employment in either 2010 or 2011.

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Footnote 106

Includes self-employed with an incorporated business and self-employed with an unincorporated business. Also included among the self-employed are unpaid family workers.

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Footnote 107

Refers to the kind of work performed by persons during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2011, as determined by their kind of work and the description of the main activities in their job. The 2011 National Household Survey occupation data are produced according to the NOC 2011.

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Footnote 108

Unemployed persons aged 15 years and over who have never worked for pay or in self-employment or who had last worked prior to January 1, 2010 only.

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Footnote 109

Experienced labour force refers to persons who, during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2011, were employed and the unemployed who had last worked for pay or in self-employment in either 2010 or 2011.

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Footnote 110

Refers to the general nature of the business carried out in the establishment where the person worked. The 2011 National Household Survey industry data are produced according to the NAICS 2007.

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Footnote 111

Unemployed persons aged 15 years and over who have never worked for pay or in self-employment or who had last worked prior to January 1, 2010 only.

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Footnote 112

Experienced labour force refers to persons who, during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2011, were employed and the unemployed who had last worked for pay or in self-employment in either 2010 or 2011.

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Footnote 113

Refers to the number of weeks in which a person worked for pay or in self-employment in 2010 at all jobs held, even if only for a few hours, and whether these weeks were mostly full time (30 hours or more per week) or mostly part time (less than 30 hours per week).

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Footnote 114

Includes persons who never worked, persons who worked prior to 2010 only, or persons who worked in 2011 only.

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Footnote 115

Refers to persons who worked for pay or in self-employment in 2010. These persons were asked to report whether the weeks they worked in 2010 were full-time weeks (30 hours or more per week) or not, on the basis of all jobs held. Persons with a part-time job for part of the year and a full-time job for another part of the year were to report the information for the job at which they worked the most weeks.

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Footnote 116

Includes persons who never worked, persons who worked prior to 2010 only, or persons who worked in 2011 only.

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Footnote 117

Classification of respondents according to whether they worked at home, worked outside Canada, had no fixed workplace address or worked at a specific address (usual place of work).

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Footnote 118

Refers to the main mode of transportation a respondent uses to travel between his or her home and his or her place of work.

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Footnote 119

Refers to how many minutes it took for a person to travel from home to work. Median commuting duration is the value which divides the commuting duration into two equal halves, i.e., the commuting duration of individuals for the first half is below the median, while the commuting distance of individuals for the second half is above the median.

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Footnote 120

Time at which a respondent usually leaves home to go to work.

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Footnote 121

Condition of dwelling - Refers to whether the dwelling is in need of repairs. This does not include desirable remodelling or additions.

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Footnote 122

Period of construction - Refers to the period in time during which the building or dwelling was originally constructed.

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Footnote 123

Includes data up to May 10, 2011.

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Footnote 124

Rooms - Refers to enclosed areas within a private dwelling which are finished and suitable for year round living. The number of rooms of a private dwelling includes kitchens, bedrooms and finished rooms in the attic or basement.

The number of rooms of a private dwelling excludes bathrooms, halls, vestibules and rooms used solely for business purposes. Partially divided rooms are considered to be separate rooms if they are considered as such by the respondent (e.g., L-shaped diningroom and livingroom arrangements).

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Footnote 125

Bedrooms - Refers to rooms in a private dwelling that are designed mainly for sleeping purposes even if they are now used for other purposes, such as guest rooms and television rooms. Also included are rooms used as bedrooms now, even if they were not originally built as bedrooms, such as bedrooms in a finished basement.

Bedrooms exclude rooms designed for another use during the day such as dining rooms and living rooms even if they may be used for sleeping purposes at night. By definition, one-room private dwellings such as studio apartments have zero bedrooms.

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Footnote 126

Tenure - Refers to whether the household owns or rents their private dwelling, or whether the dwelling is band housing (on an Indian reserve or settlement).

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Footnote 127

Condominium status - Refers to whether the private dwelling is part of a condominium development. A condominium is a residential complex in which dwellings are owned individually while land and common elements are held in joint ownership with others.

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Footnote 128

Household maintainer - Refers to whether or not a person residing in the household is responsible for paying the rent, or the mortgage, or the taxes, or the electricity or other services or utilities. Where a number of people may contribute to the payments, more than one person in the household may be identified as a household maintainer. If no person in the household is identified as making such payments, the reference person is identified by default.

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Footnote 129

Primary household maintainer - First person in the household identified as someone who pays the rent or the mortgage, or the taxes, or the electricity bill, and so on, for the dwelling.

The order of the persons in a household is determined by the order in which the respondent lists the persons on the questionnaire. Generally, an adult is listed first followed, if applicable, by that person's spouse or common-law partner and by their children. The order does not necessarily correspond to the proportion of household payments made by the person.

Age - Refers to the age at last birthday before the reference date, that is, before May 10, 2011.

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Footnote 130

Persons per room - Refers to an indicator of the level of crowding in a private dwelling. It is calculated by dividing the number of persons in the household by the number of rooms in the dwelling.

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Footnote 131

Housing suitability - Housing suitability refers to whether a private household is living in suitable accommodations according to the National Occupancy Standard (NOS); that is, whether the dwelling has enough bedrooms for the size and composition of the household. A household is deemed to be living in suitable accommodations if its dwelling has enough bedrooms, as calculated using the NOS.

Housing suitability assesses the required number of bedrooms for a household based on the age, sex, and relationships among household members. An alternative variable, the number of persons per room, considers all rooms in a private dwelling and the number of household members.

Housing suitability and the National Occupancy Standard (NOS) on which it is based were developed by Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC) through consultations with provincial housing agencies.

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Footnote 132

Shelter-cost-to-income ratio - Percentage of a household's average total monthly income which is spent on shelter-related expenses. Those expenses include the monthly rent (for tenants) or the mortgage payment, property taxes and condominium fees (for owners) and the costs of electricity, heat, municipal services, etc. The percentage is calculated by dividing the total shelter-related expenses by the household's total monthly income and multiplying the result by 100.

Includes owner and tenant households in non-farm, non-reserve private dwellings with household total income greater than zero in 2010 (i.e., excludes negative or zero household total income).

The relatively high shelter costs to household income ratios for some households may have resulted from the difference in the reference period for shelter costs and household total income data. The reference period for shelter cost data is 2011, while household total income is reported for the year 2010. As well, for some households, the 2010 household total income may represent income for only part of a year.

Household total income - The total income of a household is the sum of the total incomes of all members of that household. Total income refers to the total of income from all sources, including employment income, income from government programs, pension income, investment income and any other money income, before income taxes and deductions, during the calendar year 2010.

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Footnote 133

Presence of mortgage - Refers to whether the owner households reported mortgage or loan payments for their dwelling.

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Footnote 134

Shelter-cost-to-income ratio for owner households - Percentage of an owner household's average total monthly income which is spent on shelter-related expenses. Those expenses include the mortgage payment, property taxes and condominium fees and the costs of electricity, heat, municipal services, etc. The percentage is calculated by dividing the total shelter-related expenses by the household's total monthly income and multiplying the result by 100.

Includes owner households in non-farm, non-reserve private dwellings with household total income greater than zero in 2010 (i.e., excludes negative or zero household total income).

The relatively high shelter costs to household income ratios for some households may have resulted from the difference in the reference period for shelter costs and household total income data. The reference period for shelter cost data is 2011, while household total income is reported for the year 2010. As well, for some households, the 2010 household total income may represent income for only part of a year.

Household total income - The total income of a household is the sum of the total incomes of all members of that household. Total income refers to the total of income from all sources, including employment income, income from government programs, pension income, investment income and any other money income, before income taxes and deductions, during the calendar year 2010.

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Footnote 135

Shelter cost for owned dwellings - Includes all shelter expenses paid by households that own their dwellings, such as the mortgage payment and the costs of electricity, heat, water and other municipal services, property taxes and condominium fees.

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Footnote 136

Shelter cost for owned dwellings - Includes all shelter expenses paid by households that own their dwellings, such as the mortgage payment and the costs of electricity, heat, water and other municipal services, property taxes and condominium fees.

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Footnote 137

Value of dwelling - Refers to the dollar amount expected by the owner if the dwelling were to be sold.

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Footnote 138

Value of dwelling - Refers to the dollar amount expected by the owner if the dwelling were to be sold.

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Footnote 139

Subsidized housing - Refers to whether the dwelling is subsidized. Subsidized housing includes rent geared to income, social housing, public housing, government-assisted housing, non-profit housing, rent supplements and housing allowances.

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Footnote 140

Shelter-cost-to-income ratio for tenant households - Percentage of a tenant household's average total monthly income which is spent on shelter-related expenses. Those expenses include the monthly rent and the costs of electricity, heat, municipal services, etc. The percentage is calculated by dividing the total shelter-related expenses by the household's total monthly income and multiplying the result by 100.


Includes tenant households in non-farm, non-reserve private dwellings with household total income greater than zero in 2010 (i.e., excludes negative or zero household total income).

The relatively high shelter costs to household income ratios for some households may have resulted from the difference in the reference period for shelter costs and household total income data. The reference period for shelter cost data is 2011, while household total income is reported for the year 2010. As well, for some households, the 2010 household total income may represent income for only part of a year.

Household total income - The total income of a household is the sum of the total incomes of all members of that household. Total income refers to the total of income from all sources, including employment income, income from government programs, pension income, investment income and any other money income, before income taxes and deductions, during the calendar year 2010.

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Footnote 141

Shelter costs for rented dwellings - Includes all shelter expenses paid by households that rent their dwellings, such as the monthly rent and the costs of electricity, heat and municipal services.

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Footnote 142

Shelter costs for rented dwellings - Includes all shelter expenses paid by households that rent their dwellings, such as the monthly rent and the costs of electricity, heat and municipal services.

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Footnote 143

Total income - Total income refers to monetary receipts from certain sources, before income taxes and deductions, during calendar year 2010. It includes employment income from wages, salaries, tips, commissions and net income from self-employment (for both unincorporated farm and non-farm activities); income from government sources, such as social assistance, child benefits, employment insurance, old age security pension, Canada or Quebec pension plan benefits and disability income; income from employer and personal pension sources, such as private pensions and payments from annuities and RRIFs; income from investment sources, such as dividends and interest on bonds, accounts, GICs and mutual funds; and other regular cash income, such as child support payments received, spousal support payments (alimony) received and scholarships. The monetary receipts included are those that tend to be of a regular and recurring nature. It excludes one-time receipts, such as lottery winnings, gambling winnings, cash inheritances, lump sum insurance settlements, capital gains and RRSP withdrawals. Capital gains are excluded because they are not by their nature regular and recurring. It is further assumed that they are less likely to be fully spent in the period in which they are received, unlike income that is regular and recurring. Also excluded are employer's contributions to registered pension plans, Canada and Quebec pension plans, and employment insurance. Finally, voluntary inter-household transfers, imputed rent, goods and services produced for barter, and goods produced for own consumption are excluded from this total income definition

Median income of individuals - The median income of a specified group of income recipients is that amount which divides their income size distribution into two halves, i.e., the incomes of the first half of individuals are below the median, while those of the second half are above the median. Median income is calculated from the individuals with income in that group (e.g., males aged 45 to 54 years).

Average income of individuals - Average income of individuals refers to the weighted mean total income of individuals aged 15 years and over who reported income for 2010. Average income is calculated from unrounded data by dividing the aggregate income of a specified group of individuals (e.g., males aged 45 to 54 years) by the number of individuals with income in that group.

Median and average incomes of individuals will be calculated for those individuals who are at least aged 15 years and who have an income (positive or negative).

Age - Refers to the age at last birthday before the reference date, that is, before May 10, 2011.

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Footnote 144

Including loss.

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Footnote 145

For population with income.

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Footnote 146

For population with income.

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Footnote 147

After-tax income - Refers to total income from all sources minus federal, provincial and territorial income taxes paid for 2010.

Median income of individuals - The median income of a specified group of income recipients is that amount which divides their income size distribution into two halves, i.e., the incomes of the first half of individuals are below the median, while those of the second half are above the median. Median income is calculated from the individuals with income in that group (e.g., males aged 45 to 54 years).

Average income of individuals - Average income of individuals refers to the weighted mean total income of individuals aged 15 years and over who reported income for 2010. Average income is calculated from unrounded data by dividing the aggregate income of a specified group of individuals (e.g., males aged 45 to 54 years) by the number of individuals with income in that group.


Median and average incomes of individuals will be calculated for those individuals who are at least aged 15 years and who have an income (positive or negative).

Age - Refers to the age at last birthday before the reference date, that is, before May 10, 2011.

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Footnote 148

Including loss.

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Footnote 149

For population with after-tax income.

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Footnote 150

For population with after-tax income.

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Footnote 151

Composition of income - The composition of the total income of a population group or a geographic area refers to the relative share of each income source or group of sources, expressed as a percentage of the aggregate total income of that group or area.
Total income - Total of income from all sources, including employment income, income from government programs, pension income, investment income and any other money income.
Age - Refers to the age at last birthday before the reference date, that is, before May 10, 2011.

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Footnote 152

Market income - Refers to the sum of employment income (wages and salaries, net farm income and net income from non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice), investment income, retirement pensions, superannuation and annuities (including those from RRSPs and RRIFs) and other money income. It is equivalent to total income before tax minus all government transfers and is also referred to as income before transfers and taxes.

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Footnote 153

Earnings or employment income - Total wages and salaries and net income from self-employment.

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Footnote 154

Wages and salaries - Refers to gross wages and salaries before deductions for such items as income tax, pensions and Employment Insurance. Included in this source are military pay and allowances, tips, commissions and cash bonuses, benefits from wage-loss replacement plans or income-maintenance insurance plans, supplementary unemployment benefits from an employer or union as well as all types of casual earnings during calendar year 2010. Other employment income such as taxable benefits, research grants and royalties are included.

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Footnote 155

Self-employment net income - Refers to the total amount received by persons aged 15 years and over during calendar year 2010 as net farm income from self-employment, or net non-farm income from unincorporated business and/or professional practice.

Net farm income - Refers to net income (gross receipts from farm sales minus depreciation and cost of operation) received during calendar year 2010 from the operation of a farm, either on the respondent's own account or in partnership. In the case of partnerships, only the respondent's share of income was reported. Included with gross receipts are cash advances received in 2010, dividends from cooperatives, rebates and farm-support payments to farmers from federal, provincial and regional agricultural programs (for example, milk subsidies and marketing board payments) and gross insurance proceeds such as payments from the AgriInvest and AgriStability programs. The value of income 'in kind,' such as agricultural products produced and consumed on the farm, is excluded.

Net non-farm income from unincorporated business and/or professional practice - Refers to net income (gross receipts minus expenses of operation such as wages, rents and depreciation) received during calendar year 2010 from the respondent's non-farm unincorporated business or professional practice. In the case of partnerships, only the respondent's share was reported. Also included is net income from persons babysitting in their own homes, persons providing room and board to non-relatives, self-employed fishers, hunters and trappers, operators of direct distributorships such as those selling and delivering cosmetics, as well as freelance activities of artists, writers, music teachers, hairdressers, dressmakers, etc.

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Footnote 156

Investment income - Refers to interest received during calendar year 2010 from deposits in banks, trust companies, cooperatives, credit unions, caisses populaires, etc., as well as interest on savings certificates, bonds and debentures, and all dividends from both Canadian and foreign corporate stocks and mutual funds. Also included is other investment income from either Canadian or foreign sources, such as net rents from real estate, mortgage and loan interest received, regular income from an estate or trust fund, and interest from insurance policies. Does not include capital gains or losses.

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Footnote 157

Retirement pensions - Refers to all regular income received by the respondent during calendar year 2010 as the result of having been a member of a pension plan of one or more employers. It includes payments received from all annuities, including payments from a Registered Retirement Income Fund (RRIF), a matured Registered Retirement Savings Plan (RRSP) in the form of a life annuity, a fixed-term annuity, or an income-averaging annuity contract; pensions paid to widow(er)s or other relatives of deceased pensioners; pensions of retired civil servants, Armed Forces personnel and Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) officers; annuity payments received from the Canadian Government Annuities Fund, an insurance company, etc. Does not include lump-sum death benefits, lump-sum benefits or withdrawals from a pension plan or RRSP, or refunds of over-contributions.

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Footnote 158

Other money income - Refers to regular cash income received during calendar year 2010 and not reported in any of the other sources listed on the questionnaire. For example, severance pay and retirement allowances, alimony, child support, periodic support from other persons not in the household, income from abroad (excluding dividends and interest), non refundable scholarships, bursaries, fellowships and study grants, and artists' project grants are included.

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Footnote 159

Government transfer payments - Refers to all cash benefits received from federal, provincial, territorial or municipal governments during 2010. This variable is derived by summing the amounts reported in:

- the Old Age Security pension and Guaranteed Income Supplement, Allowance and Allowance for the Survivor
- benefits from Canada Pension Plan or Quebec Pension Plan
- benefits from Employment Insurance
- child benefits
- other income from government sources.

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Footnote 160

Benefits from Canada or Quebec pension plan - Refers to benefits received during calendar year 2010 from the Canada or Quebec Pension Plan (For example, retirement pensions, survivors' benefits and disability pensions). Does not include lump-sum death benefits.

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Footnote 161

Old Age Security pensions and Guaranteed Income Supplement - Refers to Old Age Security pensions and Guaranteed Income Supplements paid to persons aged 65 years and over, and to the Allowance or Allowance for the survivor paid to 60- to 64-year-old spouses of old age security recipients or widow(er)s by the federal government during the calendar year 2010.

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Footnote 162

Benefits from employment insurance - Refers to total Employment Insurance benefits received during calendar year 2010, before income tax deductions. It includes benefits for unemployment, sickness, maternity, paternity, adoption, work sharing, retraining and benefits to self-employed fishers received under the federal Employment Insurance Program or the Quebec Parental Insurance Program.

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Footnote 163

Child benefits - Refers to payments received under the Canada Child Tax Benefit program during calendar year 2010 by parents with dependent children under 18 years of age. Included with the Canada Child Tax Benefit is the National Child Benefit Supplement (NCBS) for low-income families with children. The NCBS is the federal contribution to the National Child Benefit (NCB), a joint initiative of federal, provincial and territorial governments. Also included in this variable are child benefits, child disability benefits and earned income supplements provided by certain provinces and territories and the Universal Child Care Benefit (UCCB).

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Footnote 164

Other income from government sources - Refers to all transfer payments, excluding those covered as a separate income source (Canada Pension Plan or Quebec Pension Plan benefits, Old Age Security pensions and Guaranteed Income Supplements, Employment Insurance benefits and child benefits) received from federal, provincial, territorial or municipal programs during 2010.

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Footnote 165

Income tax paid - Refers to all federal, provincial and territorial taxes paid on 2010 income. Federal, provincial and territorial taxes paid refer to taxes on income, after taking into account exemptions, deductions, non-refundable tax credits and the Quebec abatement. These taxes are obtained from the income tax files for persons who allowed access to their income tax data and from direct responses on the questionnaire for others.

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Footnote 166

After-tax income - Refers to total income from all sources minus federal, provincial and territorial taxes paid for 2010.

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Footnote 167

Net capital gains or losses -
Refers to the net gains received or losses incurred during calendar year 2010 from the sale of capital property. This represents the proceeds of disposition minus the adjusted cost base of the property and outlays and expenses incurred to sell the property. Capital property includes depreciable property and any property which, if sold, would result in a capital gain or loss (for example, cottages, buildings and securities such as mutual funds).
Non-taxable capital gains or losses on the sale of a principal residence are excluded.

Net capital gains or losses are not included in the definition of Total income as published in standard products.

Net capital gains or losses are not included in the concept of total income but are expressed here as a percentage to obtain a relative measure of size.

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Footnote 168

Earnings or employment income - Refers to total income received by persons 15 years of age and over during calendar year 2010 as wages and salaries, net income from a non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice, and/or net farm self-employment income.

Wages and salaries - Refers to gross wages and salaries before deductions for such items as income tax, pensions and Employment Insurance. Included in this source are military pay and allowances, tips, commissions and cash bonuses, benefits from wage-loss replacement plans or income-maintenance insurance plans, supplementary unemployment benefits from an employer or union as well as all types of casual earnings during calendar year 2010. Other employment income such as taxable benefits, research grants and royalties are included.

Net non-farm income from unincorporated business or professional practice - Refers to net income (gross receipts minus expenses of operation such as wages, rents and depreciation) received during calendar year 2010 from the respondent's non-farm unincorporated business or professional practice. In the case of partnerships, only the respondent's share was reported. Also included is net income from persons babysitting in their own homes, persons providing room and board to non-relatives, self-employed fishers, hunters and trappers, operators of direct distributorships such as those selling and delivering cosmetics, as well as freelance activities of artists, writers, music teachers, hairdressers, dressmakers, etc.

Net farm income - Refers to net income (gross receipts from farm sales minus depreciation and cost of operation) received during calendar year 2010 from the operation of a farm, either on the respondent's own account or in partnership. In the case of partnerships, only the respondent's share of income was reported. Included with gross receipts are cash advances received in 2010, dividends from cooperatives, rebates and farm-support payments to farmers from federal, provincial and regional agricultural programs (for example, milk subsidies and marketing board payments) and gross insurance proceeds such as payments from the AgriInvest and AgriStability programs. The value of income 'in kind,' such as agricultural products produced and consumed on the farm, is excluded.

Median income of individuals - The median income of a specified group of income recipients is that amount which divides their income size distribution, ranked by size of income, into two halves, i.e., the incomes of the first half of individuals are below the median, while those of the second half are above the median. Median income is calculated from the unrounded number of individuals (e.g., males aged 45 to 54 years) with income in that group.

Average income of individuals - Average income of individuals refers to the weighted mean total income of individuals aged 15 years and over who reported income for 2010. Average income is calculated from unrounded data by dividing the aggregate income of a specified group of individuals (e.g., males aged 45 to 54 years) by the number of individuals with income in that group.
Median and average incomes of individuals will be calculated for those individuals who are at least aged 15 years and who have an income (positive or negative).

The above concept and procedures also apply in the calculation of these statistics for earnings.

Work activity in 2010 - Refers to the number of weeks in which a person worked for pay or in self-employment in 2010 at all jobs held, even if only for a few hours, and whether these weeks were mostly full time (30 hours or more per week) or mostly part time (less than 30 hours per week).

Age - Refers to the age at last birthday before the reference date, that is, before May 10, 2011.

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Footnote 169

Economic family total income - The total income of an economic family is the sum of the total incomes of all members of that family.

Total income - Total income refers to monetary receipts from certain sources, before income taxes and deductions, during calendar year 2010. It includes employment income from wages, salaries, tips, commissions and net income from self-employment (for both unincorporated farm and non-farm activities); income from government sources, such as social assistance, child benefits, employment insurance, old age security pension, Canada or Quebec pension plan benefits and disability income; income from employer and personal pension sources, such as private pensions and payments from annuities and RRIFs; income from investment sources, such as dividends and interest on bonds, accounts, GICs and mutual funds; and other regular cash income, such as child support payments received, spousal support payments (alimony) received and scholarships. The monetary receipts included are those that tend to be of a regular and recurring nature. It excludes one-time receipts, such as lottery winnings, gambling winnings, cash inheritances, lump sum insurance settlements, capital gains and RRSP withdrawals. Capital gains are excluded because they are not by their nature regular and recurring. It is further assumed that they are less likely to be fully spent in the period in which they are received, unlike income that is regular and recurring. Also excluded are employer's contributions to registered pension plans, Canada and Quebec pension plans, and employment insurance. Finally, voluntary inter-household transfers, imputed rent, goods and services produced for barter, and goods produced for own consumption are excluded from this total income definition.

After-tax income of economic families - The after-tax income of an economic family is the sum of the after-tax incomes of all members of that family. After-tax income of family members or persons not in families refers to total income from all sources minus federal, provincial and territorial income taxes paid for 2010.

Median income of economic families - The median income of a specified group of families is that amount which divides their income size distribution, ranked by size of income, into two halves. That is, the incomes of the first half of the families are below the median, while those of the second half are above the median. Median incomes of families are normally calculated for all units in the specified group, whether or not they reported income.

Average income of economic families - Average income of economic families refers to the weighted mean total income of families in 2010. Average income is calculated from unrounded data by dividing the aggregate income of a specified group of families (for example, husband-wife families with working wives) by the number of families in that group, whether or not they reported income.

The above concept and procedures also apply in the calculation of these statistics on the after-tax income of economic families.


Economic family - Refers to a group of two or more persons who live in the same dwelling and are related to each other by blood, marriage, common-law, adoption or a foster relationship. A couple may be of opposite or same sex.

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Footnote 170

Economic family structure - Refers to the classification of economic families as couple families, lone-parent families or other economic families.
Couple families - Those in which a member of either a married or common-law couple is the economic family reference person.
Lone-parent families - Those in which either a male or female lone parent is the economic family reference person.
Other economic families - Those in which the economic family reference person has other relatives but does not have a married spouse or common-law partner or a child in their census family.

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Footnote 171

Economic family structure - Refers to the classification of economic families as couple families, lone-parent families or other economic families.
Couple families - Those in which a member of either a married or common-law couple is the economic family reference person.
Lone-parent families - Those in which either a male or female lone parent is the economic family reference person.
Other economic families - Those in which the economic family reference person has other relatives but does not have a married spouse or common-law partner or a child in their census family.

Presence of children - Refers to the number of children in private households by age groups. To be included, children must live in the same household as the family, without a married spouse, common-law partner or one or more of their children living in the same household. In a census family, they may be children by birth, marriage or adoption. In an economic family, foster children are also included.

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Footnote 172

Economic family structure - Refers to the classification of economic families as couple families, lone-parent families or other economic families.

Couple families - Those in which a member of either a married or common-law couple is the economic family reference person.

Lone-parent families - Those in which either a male or female lone parent is the economic family reference person.

Other economic families - Those in which the economic family reference person has other relatives but does not have a married spouse or common-law partner or a child in their census family.

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Footnote 173

Total income - Total income refers to monetary receipts from certain sources, before income taxes and deductions, during calendar year 2010. It includes employment income from wages, salaries, tips, commissions and net income from self-employment (for both unincorporated farm and non-farm activities); income from government sources, such as social assistance, child benefits, employment insurance, old age security pension, Canada or Quebec pension plan benefits and disability income; income from employer and personal pension sources, such as private pensions and payments from annuities and RRIFs; income from investment sources, such as dividends and interest on bonds, accounts, GICs and mutual funds; and other regular cash income, such as child support payments received, spousal support payments (alimony) received and scholarships. The monetary receipts included are those that tend to be of a regular and recurring nature. It excludes one-time receipts, such as lottery winnings, gambling winnings, cash inheritances, lump sum insurance settlements, capital gains and RRSP withdrawals. Capital gains are excluded because they are not by their nature regular and recurring. It is further assumed that they are less likely to be fully spent in the period in which they are received, unlike income that is regular and recurring. Also excluded are employer's contributions to registered pension plans, Canada and Quebec pension plans, and employment insurance. Finally, voluntary inter-household transfers, imputed rent, goods and services produced for barter, and goods produced for own consumption are excluded from this total income definition.

After-tax income - Refers to total income from all sources minus federal, provincial and territorial income taxes paid for 2010.

Median income of persons not in economic families - The median income of a specified group of persons not in economic families (for example, males aged 55 to 64) is that amount which divides their income size distribution, ranked by size of income, into two halves. That is, the incomes of the first half of the persons are below the median, while those of the second half are above the median. Median incomes of persons not in economic families are normally calculated for all units in the specified group, whether or not they reported income.

Average income of persons not in economic families - Average income of persons not in economic families refers to the weighted mean total income of the persons not in economic families in 2010. Average income is calculated from unrounded data by dividing the aggregate income of a specified group of persons not in economic families by the number of persons in that group, whether or not they reported income.

The above concept and procedures also apply in the calculation of these statistics on the after-tax income of persons not in economic families.

Age - Refers to the age at last birthday before the reference date, that is, before May 10, 2011.

Economic family persons refer to two or more household members who are related to each other by blood, marriage, common-law, adoption or a foster relationship, and thereby constitute an economic family.

Persons not in economic families refer to household members who do not belong to an economic family, including persons living alone.

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Footnote 174

Calculation includes persons not in economic families without income (with an income of zero).

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